Regular wide QRS tachycardias are ventricular until proved otherwise. Regular wide QRS supraventricular tachycardias are uncommon. Refer all cases after resuscitation and stabilisation. Emergency DC cardioversion is mandatory with a full protocol of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). GENERAL MEASURES CPR. If


Usually paroxysmal. Often young patients with normal hearts. AV nodal re-entry or WPW syndrome. P waves usually not visible (hidden by QRS complexes). GENERAL MEASURES Vagal manoeuvres: valsalva or carotid sinus massage. The patient should be supine and as relaxed


Atrial rate >250 beats/minute with no flat baseline. Can be difficult to recognize if 2:1 atrioventricular (AV) block, as the first of the 2 p waves preceding each QRS complex might be confused with the twelve of the preceding beat.


Acute onset (<48 hours) Assess clinically, e.g. heart failure, mitral stenosis, thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, age and other medical conditions. Consider anticoagulation with heparin or warfarin. Synchronized direct current (DC) cardioversion is occasionally necessary in emergency. Consider if first episode. Non-acute/chronic (>


DESCRIPTION Sustained (> 30 seconds) or non-sustained narrow QRS (0.1 seconds) tachycardias.   REFERRAL Narrow QRS complex (supraventricular) tachydysrhythmias » Poor rate control. »     Severe symptoms.   Regular narrow QRS (supraventricular) tachycardias » Frequent or severe symptoms for curative radiofrequency


  DESCRIPTION History and palpation of pulses confirms diagnosis. GENERAL MEASURES Smoking cessation is essential and is the single most important intervention to prevent progression. Exercise within exercise tolerance and other lifestyle modifications. See section 3.1: Ischaemic heart disease and


AMXICILIN Registered name: Amoxil, and clamoxyl Function: Antibacterial: any drugs or medicine use to treat bacterial infection   Usage The drugs is used to treat respiratory and ENT infection caused by bacteria such pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, streptococcus tonsillitis. Include

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Regular sex boost mental health of a women

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Electromagnetic radiation

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Spectroscopic analysis

Spectroscopic procedure of analysis is by estimating the intensity and wavelength of radiation that is transmitted or absorbed in the spectrophotometry. This step give foundation for sensitivity procedure for determination and quantization. On the basis of determination and quantization of


These are important anaerobic covering, and it is made up of a gas tight chamber with cemented covering portal and an inlet lock for moving substance in or out the chamber. The gas usually oxygen free is expelled via the


SEMI-SOLID INDICATOR Some anaerobic jar is made up of side arm; this side arm is a point at which indicator tube is attached to the jar via a short length of rubber tubing. This type of jar have their own


THESTING ANAEROBIC JAR There are two purposes which can cause anaerobic jar not to function properly, which are; Leakage jar: when there is leakage in the jar, there is possibility of the jar not to function normally. These conditions can


ANAEROBIC INCUBATION IN CANDLE JAR When micro organism is important to grow in an atmosphere CO2, the easiest way is to place the plate culture together with a light candle and crew down the lid of the jar and incubate,


enviroment mean different thing to different people, and in a different area of study, they also define the eneiroment base on there area of concentration. generaly enviroment can be define as anything that is arround us that we interact with


HANDLING ANAEROBIC MICRO ORGANISM Since exposing many of these microorganism to free oxygen will kill them, a special precaution should be adhere to when handling the microorganism in other to prevent coursing dead to then, doe to exposure to the


ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTION If some foreign substance is injected into the blood vessel of an animal, the injected substance stimulate a specific receptor by special cell in the body, the cell called lymphoid lead to the formation of protein in the


This antigen can be trace back to year 1903 a man called smith and his colleague found that motile hog cholera bacillus had a non motile change. As antiserum produce against the motile organism yield an unlike agglutination reaction to

Tube Agglutination

Tube Agglutination Material Pipettes Test tube Grease pencil Pack for tube Serum Agglutination tube Antigen 50% water bath Normal saline PROCEDURE Set ten test tube on a rack A volume of normal saline should be added to tube one and


                LANCEFILED GROUPING This is method for demonstrating precipitation base on reaction of antigen and antibody within the bacteria involved. Glucose both culture overnight, centrifuge these culture at 3000rmp for 5-10 minute and discard the supernatant also growth culture from


LABELLED ANTIBODY TEST: it is important to stick to different type of label onto antibodies by not completing their potential to lay an ambush on the antigens. There are several numbers of label that are commonly used, Flourescent Dyes (fluorochromes):


COMPLEMENT FIXATION This is a set of protein thermolabile found in the serum that propose that material of binding antibody to antigen complex. These complement was known to be fixed for example Ag + Ab  →  Ag – Ab complex Now

Gel precipitation technique

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BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SPECIMEN Any sample sent for screening in the microbiology laboratory must be handle with extreme care because the sample may have biological pathogens that may cause disease to the lab personnel or may even spread to the


HOW TO HANDLE HIGH RISK SAMPLE High risk sample can be define as a sample that is suspected to carry the following high risk infections, such as HIV, HBsAg, Tuberclosis etc High risk sample like the one stated previously or


The following characteristic must be figure out when examine specimen microscopically; Colour Opacity Consistency Present of blood Pus or mucus Present of parasite, fungi, and bacteria Culture plate: type of colonies number seen either  1, 2, 3, or so on

Blood Culture

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Automated blood culture

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Cerehrospinal fluid

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Gram Negative Bacilli Method

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Fluid Examination in the Laboratory

Fluid Examination in the Laboratory Macroscopy, such as the appearance of the fluid should be noted. Transfer the fluid to clean sterile centrifuge container or tube, and centrifuge the fluid for 5 minute at 3000rpm. Discard the supernatant, then the

Pus(Abscesses) Examination

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Serology This is an examination of serum for a particular organism. for these examination, whole blood is sent to the laboratory in a sterile universal container. The sample should be allowed to clot. In other to faster the clothing of

sputum examination

Sputum: these examination may classified into two groups the one for examination of mycobacterium turberculosis and the sencon for examination of normal mouth flora such as; Neisseria Diptheroids Spirochates Fusiform bacilli Non haemolytic streptococcus Step for examination of Normal Flora

Genitourinary Swab Sample

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Examination of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Examination of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis The smear from the sputum can be make for demonstration of the present acid bacilli, but cannot be used for examination of turbercle bacilli. Petroff’s Method for Examination Of M.T mix the sputum with sodium hydroxide

Laryngeal Swab for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

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Water Deionization Deionization is another way to obtain water that is chemically pure. The mechanism behind these, is that tap water is passed through anion and cation exchange resin, on the resin any ion present in the water will be

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Balance of chemical Equation

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