Medical Lab Science


Bacteriophages Bacteriophages, or simply phages, are viruses that infect bacteria. They possess a protein shell surrounding the phage genome, which with few exceptions is composed of DNA. A bacteriophage attaches to specific receptors on its host bacteria and injects its


Microscope is made up off three basic component which include; Stand The stand is the frame of the microscope, stand is skeleton of the microscope of which other part of the microscope is attached to. Mechanical component The mechanical component


Epidemiological Terminologies Epidemiology investigates the distribution of diseases, their physiological variables and social consequences in human populations, and the factors that influence disease distribution (World Health Organization [WHO] definition). The field covered by this discipline can thus be defined as


HANDLING ANAEROBIC MICRO ORGANISM Since exposing many of these microorganism to free oxygen will kill them, a special precaution should be adhere to when handling the microorganism in other to prevent coursing dead to then, doe to exposure to the


ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTION If some foreign substance is injected into the blood vessel of an animal, the injected substance stimulate a specific receptor by special cell in the body, the cell called lymphoid lead to the formation of protein in the


This antigen can be trace back to year 1903 a man called smith and his colleague found that motile hog cholera bacillus had a non motile change. As antiserum produce against the motile organism yield an unlike agglutination reaction to

Tube Agglutination

Tube Agglutination Material Pipettes Test tube Grease pencil Pack for tube Serum Agglutination tube Antigen 50% water bath Normal saline PROCEDURE Set ten test tube on a rack A volume of normal saline should be added to tube one and


                LANCEFILED GROUPING This is method for demonstrating precipitation base on reaction of antigen and antibody within the bacteria involved. Glucose both culture overnight, centrifuge these culture at 3000rmp for 5-10 minute and discard the supernatant also growth culture from


LABELLED ANTIBODY TEST: it is important to stick to different type of label onto antibodies by not completing their potential to lay an ambush on the antigens. There are several numbers of label that are commonly used, Flourescent Dyes (fluorochromes):


COMPLEMENT FIXATION This is a set of protein thermolabile found in the serum that propose that material of binding antibody to antigen complex. These complement was known to be fixed for example Ag + Ab  →  Ag – Ab complex Now

Gel precipitation technique

Gel precipitation technique On this technique there is an interaction between two reagents and this interaction may result in a ring formation visible to the eye. Another reaction is between antigen and antibody combination on the technique the precipitation can


Serology This is an examination of serum for a particular organism. for these examination, whole blood is sent to the laboratory in a sterile universal container. The sample should be allowed to clot. In other to faster the clothing of

Use and care of centrifuge

Use and care of centrifuge Just like other instrument need care so also did centrifuge, below are some of the used and care for centrifuge; Make sure that you balance the centrifuge by making sure that the weigh equal to

Model type of centrifuge

Model type of centrifuge These is the subcalassification of swing out rot centrifuge, they are basically classified into five type which include; Hand centrifuge: these are centrifuge operated manually by hand. The centrifuge is fixed to a bench with the

Type of centrifuge

Type of centrifuge Centrifuge is basically made up of two type, there production is based on the way the rotate known as rotors. The two type of centrifuge are named as; fixed angle centrifuge swing out centrifuge fixed angle centrifuge:

Care and maintenance of laboratory balance

Care of laboratory balance Weighing balance is very delicate instrument in the laboratory, as such it need special handling and maintenance. Often, every instrument come with manufactural guidelines, of which the laboratory weighing balance is not an exception. Each weighing


WEIGHING EQUIPMENT Weighing equipment is very important in the medical laboratory. Because before reagent can be prepared, the must be weigh to known the quantity required to be titrated with the solvent, that define the important of weighing balance in


Instruments and equipment are essential for the functioning of any medical laboratory. The last twenty years have observed extraordinary development in the area of computerisation of medical laboratory technology. It has been witnessed that the progress has led to additional

Plasmodium species and their distribution

Plasmodium species and their distribution There are four species of Plasmodium that cause human malaria: Widespread species:Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium vivax Less widespread species: Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium ovale Subdivision of Plasmodium The genus Plasmodium is subdivided into the subgenus Laverania and


Light Microscope  Microscope can simple be refer an instrument that facilitate the visualization of microorganism. Microorganism are those organism that we cannot see with our naked eyes. Microscope is one of the most exorbitant and fragile instrument use in the