Category Archives: Immunology


HANDLING ANAEROBIC MICRO ORGANISM Since exposing many of these microorganism to free oxygen will kill them, a special precaution should be adhere to when handling the microorganism in other to prevent coursing dead to then, doe to exposure to the


ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTION If some foreign substance is injected into the blood vessel of an animal, the injected substance stimulate a specific receptor by special cell in the body, the cell called lymphoid lead to the formation of protein in the


This antigen can be trace back to year 1903 a man called smith and his colleague found that motile hog cholera bacillus had a non motile change. As antiserum produce against the motile organism yield an unlike agglutination reaction to

Tube Agglutination

Tube Agglutination Material Pipettes Test tube Grease pencil Pack for tube Serum Agglutination tube Antigen 50% water bath Normal saline PROCEDURE Set ten test tube on a rack A volume of normal saline should be added to tube one and


                LANCEFILED GROUPING This is method for demonstrating precipitation base on reaction of antigen and antibody within the bacteria involved. Glucose both culture overnight, centrifuge these culture at 3000rmp for 5-10 minute and discard the supernatant also growth culture from


LABELLED ANTIBODY TEST: it is important to stick to different type of label onto antibodies by not completing their potential to lay an ambush on the antigens. There are several numbers of label that are commonly used, Flourescent Dyes (fluorochromes):


COMPLEMENT FIXATION This is a set of protein thermolabile found in the serum that propose that material of binding antibody to antigen complex. These complement was known to be fixed for example Ag + Ab  →  Ag – Ab complex Now

Gel precipitation technique

Gel precipitation technique On this technique there is an interaction between two reagents and this interaction may result in a ring formation visible to the eye. Another reaction is between antigen and antibody combination on the technique the precipitation can


Serology This is an examination of serum for a particular organism. for these examination, whole blood is sent to the laboratory in a sterile universal container. The sample should be allowed to clot. In other to faster the clothing of

Verious Sterilization technique in the medical laboraotry

PHYSICAL TECHNIQUE This technique involved radiation dry heat, moisture, boiling water, steam at 100ºC, and steam under pressure. Radiation: This method involved the used electromagnetive radiation in the microbiology laboratory to achieve this sterilization goal. In these techniques, the source