Healthcare

DIABETES MELLITUS IN PREGNANCY

This condition should ideally be managed by a specialist.   DESCRIPTION Established diabetes: Diabetes (type 1 or 2) predating pregnancy. Gestational diabetes: any degree of carbohydrate intolerance first recognised during pregnancy. It does not exclude the possibility that diabetes preceded

ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

DESCRIPTION Haemoglobin (Hb) <11 g/dL. Anaemia in pregnancy is mostly due to either iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency or a combination of both. Women with iron deficiency may have ‘pica’, e.g. eating substances such as soil, charcoal, ice, etc.  

MENOPAUSE AND PERIMENOPAUSAL SYNDROME

GENERAL MEASURES Counselling. Stop smoking. Maintain a balanced diet. Regular exercise   MEDICINE TREATMENT Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) This is not indicated in all postmenopausal women. Symptomatic menopausal women and those with osteoporosis risk factors will benefit including the emergence

GENITAL PROLAPSE AND URINARY INCONTINENCE

GENITAL PROLAPSE AND URINARY INCONTINENCE Prophase: the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus) Incontinence: involuntary urination or defecation All patients should be referred to a specialist for initial evaluation. Baseline investigations can, however, be

SEXUAL ASSAULT

SEXUAL ASSAULT A statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat INVESTIGATIONS Urine pregnancy test Blood for: »     RPR, »    HIV,

TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (TOP)

TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY (TOP) Gestational age is based on the estimated size of the uterus rather than dates. Ultrasound examination is more accurate and of value in identifying ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy or twins.   SUMMARY OF CHOICE OF TERMINATION

SEPTIC MISCARRIAGE

SEPTIC MISCARRIAGE Is a miscarriage that take place as result of infection do to the present of microorganism in the body of the patients, Often septic miscarriage are cause by sexually transmitted infection. i.e Gonorrhoea etc. GENERAL MEASURES  Counselling the

SIMPLE WAY OF DOING PREGNANCY TEST

PREGNANCY TEST On this post am going to teach you how to do pregnancy test with PT. strip. Pregnancy test can be done with PT strip by either using serum or urine sample. The difference is that when using urine

Prostate Health Awareness

FULL TEXT OF PROSTATE HEALTH AWARENESS LECTURE MEN MUST READ Gentlemen, I am here to speak with you on Prostate. The topic is misleading. Is prostate strictly for men? Yes, ONLY men have prostate and ONLY men over 40 years

MISCARRIAGE

A natural loss of the products of pregnancy. Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently. Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks

INFERTILITY

Counselling. Lifestyle modification, e.g. weight optimisation, smoking cessation and regular sexual intercourse. Investigation of semen analysis and prolactin level. Mid-luteal (day 21) progesterone assay. > 30 nmol/L suggests adequate ovulation. Laparoscopy and/or hysterosalpingography (Specialist supervision). MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat the underlying

HIRSUTISM AND VIRILISATION

Hirsutism refers to terminal hair growth in amounts that are socially undesirable, typically following a male pattern of distribution. Virilisation refers to the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a woman. This condition requires referral to a tertiary hospital

AMENORRHOEA

Primary amenorrhoea: no menstruation by 14 years of age in the absence of secondary sexual characteristics; or failure to menstruate by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea: amenorrhoea for at least 3 months in women with previous normal menses Investigations

ENDOMETRIOSIS

The presence and proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually within the pelvis. It may manifest as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis is made by laparoscopy. GENERAL MEASURES For women who wish to conceive, referral for

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID)

DESCRIPTION PID includes salpingitis with or without oöphoritis and, as precise clinical localisation is often difficult, denotes the spectrum of conditions resulting from infection of the upper genital tract. Sequelae include: »     recurrent infections if inadequately treated, »     

UTERINE BLEEDING, ABNORMAL

INTRODUCTION Surgical procedures as dictated by the diagnosis. Perform a transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial sampling in all women over 45 years of age. Actively exclude organic causes, e.g. fibroids, for abnormal uterine bleeding. MEDICINE TREATMENT Dysfunctional uterine bleeding implies that

DYSMENORRHOEA

Lower abdominal pain that starts with the onset of menstruation, and subsides after menses have ended. It may be primary or secondary. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is associated with chronic pelvic infection, fibroids, endometriosis and adenomyosis. GENERAL MEASURES For secondary dysmenorrhoea, investigate

VIRAL WARTS, ANOGENITAL WARTS

WARTS abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus Superficial muco-cutaneous infection caused by the human papilloma virus. GENERAL MEASURES Cryotherapy. Check patients with anogenital warts for the presence of other STIs. MEDICINE TREATMENT Cutaneous warts Treatment seldom

FUNGAL INFECTIONS

The skin may be infected by yeasts or fungi and the clinical presentation varies with organism, body site infected and the body’s response to the infection. Most infections are due to anthropomorphic species that infect humans primarily. Yeasts such as

PAPULAR URTICARIA

Lesions due to insect bite often grouped or in a linear arrangement, show a central bite mark and are on exposed areas of the body. Initial lesion is a red papule, which may blister, become excoriated, and then heal with