Category Archives: Healthcare

MISCARRIAGE

 A natural loss of the products of pregnancy. Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently. Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks

INFERTILITY

Counselling. Lifestyle modification, e.g. weight optimisation, smoking cessation and regular sexual intercourse. Investigation of semen analysis and prolactin level. Mid-luteal (day 21) progesterone assay. > 30 nmol/L suggests adequate ovulation. Laparoscopy and/or hysterosalpingography (Specialist supervision). MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat the underlying

HIRSUTISM AND VIRILISATION

Hirsutism refers to terminal hair growth in amounts that are socially undesirable, typically following a male pattern of distribution. Virilisation refers to the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a woman. This condition requires referral to a tertiary hospital

AMENORRHOEA

Primary amenorrhoea: no menstruation by 14 years of age in the absence of secondary sexual characteristics; or failure to menstruate by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea: amenorrhoea for at least 3 months in women with previous normal menses Investigations

ENDOMETRIOSIS

The presence and proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually within the pelvis. It may manifest as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis is made by laparoscopy. GENERAL MEASURES For women who wish to conceive, referral for

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID)

DESCRIPTION PID includes salpingitis with or without oöphoritis and, as precise clinical localisation is often difficult, denotes the spectrum of conditions resulting from infection of the upper genital tract. Sequelae include: »     recurrent infections if inadequately treated, »     

UTERINE BLEEDING, ABNORMAL

INTRODUCTION Surgical procedures as dictated by the diagnosis. Perform a transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial sampling in all women over 45 years of age. Actively exclude organic causes, e.g. fibroids, for abnormal uterine bleeding. MEDICINE TREATMENT Dysfunctional uterine bleeding implies that

DYSMENORRHOEA

Lower abdominal pain that starts with the onset of menstruation, and subsides after menses have ended. It may be primary or secondary. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is associated with chronic pelvic infection, fibroids, endometriosis and adenomyosis. GENERAL MEASURES For secondary dysmenorrhoea, investigate

VIRAL WARTS, ANOGENITAL WARTS

WARTS abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus Superficial muco-cutaneous infection caused by the human papilloma virus. GENERAL MEASURES Cryotherapy. Check patients with anogenital warts for the presence of other STIs. MEDICINE TREATMENT Cutaneous warts Treatment seldom

FUNGAL INFECTIONS

The skin may be infected by yeasts or fungi and the clinical presentation varies with organism, body site infected and the body’s response to the infection. Most infections are due to anthropomorphic species that infect humans primarily. Yeasts such as

PAPULAR URTICARIA

Lesions due to insect bite often grouped or in a linear arrangement, show a central bite mark and are on exposed areas of the body. Initial lesion is a red papule, which may blister, become excoriated, and then heal with

URTICARIA

A transient itchy inflammatory skin and mucosal condition recognised by a wheal and flare reaction. There are many causes. In most chronic cases the precipitant for the urticaria is never found. Lesions due to insect bite are often grouped, show

PSORIASIS

This is an inflammatory condition of the skin and joints of unknown aetiology. Scaly red, itchy papules and plaques over extensor surfaces and in the scalp are common. The nails and skin folds are often involved. In exceptional cases, it

LEG ULCERS, COMPLICATED

A chronic relapsing disorder of the lower limbs, which usually occurs in middle-aged women. It has many causes and is often associated with lipodermatosclerosis (bound-down, fibrosed skin) and eczema. It is mainly associated with vascular, predominantly venous insufficiency and immobility.

ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME, STEVENS JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS

Erythema multiforme An acute, self-limiting and commonly recurrent inflammatory skin eruption with variable involvement of the mucous membranes and without systemic symptoms. Symmetrically distributed crops of target lesions (dark centre, an inner, pale ring surrounded by an outer red ring) often

ECZEMA

Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition recognised by vesicles, weeping and crusting in the acute phase; and thickened, scaly skin with increased skin markings known as lichenification in the chronic phase. Eczema can be allergic or non-allergic. GENERAL MEASURES Avoid

FURUNCLES AND ABSCESSES

Localised bacterial skin infection of hair follicles (furuncle/boil) or dermis (abscess), usually with S. aureus. The surrounding skin becomes: »       swollen,                                »      red, »       hot , and                               »     tender to touch. Note: Boils in

IMPETIGO

Superficial skin infection, starting as vesicles with an inflammatory halo. Later a characteristic honey-coloured crust on erythematous base develops which heals without scarring. Usually caused by group A streptococci or staphylococcal infection. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a potential complication. GENERAL MEASURES

CELLULITIS AND ERYSIPELAS

Skin and subcutaneous infections with pain, swelling and erythema usually caused by streptococci, but also staphylococci and occasionally other organisms. Regional lymphadenitis may be present. Erysipelas has a raised demarcated border, whilst the border is indistinct in cellulitis. The presence

ACNE

Extemporaneous compounding of some of the preparations listed should only take place at institutions where the competencies and equipment are available. ACNE Acne is an inflammatory condition of the pilosebaceous unit. Secondary changes can lead to scarring and inflammation GENERAL

RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

These are chronic sequelae of rheumatic fever consisting of valvular damage, usually involving left heart valves, with progression and complications. GENERAL MEASURES  Acute stage: bed rest and supportive care. Patient education. Intensive health education for prevention of sore throats. MEDICINE

HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS, HYPERTENSIVE EMERGENCY

This is a life-threatening situation that requires immediate lowering of BP usually with parenteral therapy. Grade 3-4 hypertensive retinopathy is usually present with impaired renal function and proteinuria.The true emergency situation should preferably be treated by an appropriate specialist. Life-threatening

HYPERTENSION, SEVERE and HYPERTENSIVE URGENCY

HYPERTENSION, SEVERE These patients have severe hypertension, are asymptomatic and have no evidence of progressive target organ damage. Keep the patient in the care setting and repeat BP measurement after resting for 1 hour. If the second measurement is still

HYPERTENSION

Hypertension control has significant benefit for patients. Detect and treat co-existent risk factors. Assess cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle modification and patient education is essential for all patients. Medicine treatment is needed for SBP >140 mmHg and DBP > 90 mmHg. See

ENDOCARDITIS, INFECTIVE

GENERAL MEASURES Bed rest. Early surgical intervention in acute fulminant and prosthetic valve endocarditis is often indicated. MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat accompanying complications, e.g. cardiac failure. Antibiotic therapy It is essential to do at least three and no more than six

CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE (CCF)

DESCRIPTION CCF is a clinical syndrome and has several causes.  The cause and immediate precipitating factor(s) of the CCF must be identified and treated to prevent further damage to the heart. Potentially reversible causes include:   »     anaemia,                                           

SINUS BRADYCARDIA

DESCRIPTION This rhythm does not require treatment, unless it is causing symptoms, i.e. syncope, dizziness, tiredness and poor effort tolerance. Sinus bradycardia <50 beats/minute or sinus arrest with slow escape rhythm, accompanied by hypotension, strongly suggest a treatable underlying cause

HEART BLOCK (SECOND OR THIRD DEGREE)

DESCRIPTION The majority of cases occur in patients over 60 years old and are idiopathic, with an excellent long-term prognosis, provided a permanent pacemaker is implanted. Acute, reversible AV block commonly complicates inferior myocardial infarction. The condition may also be

NON-SUSTAINED (< 30 SECONDS) IRREGULAR WIDE QRS TACHYCARDIAS

These tachycardias are usually ventricular. They are common in acute myocardial infarction. In acute myocardial infarction, treat non-sustained ventricular tachycardia only if it causes significant haemodynamic compromise. Ensure the serum potassium level >4 mmol/L. MEDICINE TREATMENT Amiodarone, IV, 5 mg/kg

REGULAR WIDE QRS TACHYCARDIAS

Regular wide QRS tachycardias are ventricular until proved otherwise. Regular wide QRS supraventricular tachycardias are uncommon. Refer all cases after resuscitation and stabilisation. Emergency DC cardioversion is mandatory with a full protocol of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). GENERAL MEASURES CPR. If

AV JUNCTIONAL RE-ENTRY TACHYCARDIAS

Usually paroxysmal. Often young patients with normal hearts. AV nodal re-entry or WPW syndrome. P waves usually not visible (hidden by QRS complexes). GENERAL MEASURES Vagal manoeuvres: valsalva or carotid sinus massage. The patient should be supine and as relaxed

ATRIAL FLUTTER

Atrial rate >250 beats/minute with no flat baseline. Can be difficult to recognize if 2:1 atrioventricular (AV) block, as the first of the 2 p waves preceding each QRS complex might be confused with the twelve of the preceding beat.

ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

Acute onset (<48 hours) Assess clinically, e.g. heart failure, mitral stenosis, thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, age and other medical conditions. Consider anticoagulation with heparin or warfarin. Synchronized direct current (DC) cardioversion is occasionally necessary in emergency. Consider if first episode. Non-acute/chronic (>

NARROW QRS COMPLEX (SUPRAVENTRICULAR) TACHYDYSRHYTHMIAS

DESCRIPTION Sustained (> 30 seconds) or non-sustained narrow QRS (0.1 seconds) tachycardias.   REFERRAL Narrow QRS complex (supraventricular) tachydysrhythmias » Poor rate control. »     Severe symptoms.   Regular narrow QRS (supraventricular) tachycardias » Frequent or severe symptoms for curative radiofrequency

ATHEROSCLEROTIC PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE

  DESCRIPTION History and palpation of pulses confirms diagnosis. GENERAL MEASURES Smoking cessation is essential and is the single most important intervention to prevent progression. Exercise within exercise tolerance and other lifestyle modifications. See section 3.1: Ischaemic heart disease and

AMXICILIN

AMXICILIN Registered name: Amoxil, and clamoxyl Function: Antibacterial: any drugs or medicine use to treat bacterial infection   Usage The drugs is used to treat respiratory and ENT infection caused by bacteria such pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, streptococcus tonsillitis. Include

Cervical Incompetence & how is diagnose

This patient have a pregnancy complicated by cervical incompetence. Cervical incompetence is defined as the inability to support a pregnancy to term due to functional defect of the cervix 1 and 2. It imply an interesting abnormality of the service

5 Millions Test Tube Babies Born Worldwide

As the international committee for monitoring assisted reproductive technologies presented in latest data on children born to infertile parent at the European society of human reproduction and embryology conference of fertility expert has recently in talking has revealed that about

Inspection

There is quite large number of sophisticated material available for assisting the examination of the patient but correct information can be achieved from a general visual inspection. According to Oster he advised doctor to vividly observe patient before touching the

Inspection

There is quite large number of sophisticated material available for assisting the examination of the patient but correct information can be achieved from a general visual inspection. According to Oster he advised doctor to vividly observe patient before touching the

Physical diagnosis

This have to do with manual procedures of examine patient. on this method of examination step which may be taken include; inspection palpation percussion and auscultation. This help in the procedure of diagnosis process which will result in getting all

Health

Is the well being of human being.

ANGINA PECTORIS, STABLE

DESCRIPTION  Characteristic chest pain due to myocardial ischaemia usually occurring on exercise and relieved by rest. GENERAL MEASURES »     Lifestyle modification. Ischaemic heart disease and atherosclerosis, prevention.   MEDICINE TREATMENT Long-term prophylaxis for thrombosis: Aspirin, oral, 75–150 mg daily

NON-ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

(NSTEMI) AND UNSTABLE ANGINA (UA) DESCRIPTION Non-ST elevation MI: Chest pain that is increasing in frequency and/or severity, or occurring at rest. The chest pain is associated with elevated cardiac enzymes and ST segment depression or T wave inversion on

Oxytocin injection

Oxytocin injection as we can see today we are going to look at the oxytocin injection probably the use the indication and the dosage with administration. So let begin with presentation. Presentation Oxytocin is available in camplouse containing 3IU (5.00µg/ml

How to fix Accu-chek Glucometer error

On this post an going to show you simple step to fix your Accu-chek Glucometer error. Glucometer are prone to error and this error are caused by many problem by many fault some time when you have set your glucometer