Category Archives: Clinical Chemistry


Water Deionization Deionization is another way to obtain water that is chemically pure. The mechanism behind these, is that tap water is passed through anion and cation exchange resin, on the resin any ion present in the water will be


WATER STILLS AND DEIONISERS In performing various laboratory tests, basically in clinical chemistry, pure water is the requirement for use. These pure form of water are sourced/gotten either by distillation or deionisation processes respectively. Distillation This is a process of

Uroblinogen Strip test

Many reagent commercial test strip are available from different manufacturers. Some of these test strip are base on the modifications of previously manufactured test strip from another company. For example Ames test is the modification of Ehrlich’s test. Mechanism of


UROBILIN TEST Uribilin is an oxide products of urobilinogen when urobilinogen undergo oxidation reaction. Urobilins is orange coloured and are responsible for the normal colors of the urine, whereas urobilinogen is colourless. Urobitin does not react wsth Ebrlich’s reagent, but

Picture of Microscopic view of Genotype cell

Image of the AS genotype from different fields when viewed under the x40 objective lens of the Microscope.


RENAL FUNCTION TEST (RFT) Test Result Normal Value Urea………………… 2.5-7.0mmol/L (15-40 mg/dl) mg/dl= mmol/L x 6 Creatinine…………… 88-135µmmol/L (0.9-1.5mg/dl)male 62-115µmmol/L (0.7-1.3mg/dl)female Uric Acid……………..0.12-0.32mmol/L (2-5.5mg/dl) child 0.21-0.42mmol/L (3.5-7.2mg/dl)male 0.15-0.35mmol/L (2.6-6.0mg/dl)female LIVER FUNCTION TEST (LFT) Total Bilirubin (TB)…………1.0-17µmol/L Conjugated Bilirubin…………0.2-3.5µmol/L Albumin………………………3.2-4.5g/dl Total

Nature of Sample to be collected for chemical test and volume required

SPECIMEN QOUANTITY INVESTIGATION REMARKS Blood, Clotted 3-5ml Acid phosphate Blood, Clotted 3-5ml Alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) Blood, Clotted 2-3ml Albumin Blood, Clotted 3-5ml Alkaline phosphate Blood, Clotted 3-5ml Amylase Blood, Clotted 3-5ml Aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) Blood, Clotted 3-5ml Total bilirubin 1-2ml

Gastric and pancreatic function test

The essential things must be known before undergoing pancreatic and gastric function test It is very necessary before we discuss the test involving the digestive and pancreatic system, you must have the understanding of the nutritional needs of the body.

Measuremnet of Blood pH

PH of the blood can be estimated potentiometrically using pH meter. Often arterial blood are collected for measuremnet of blood pH. Sample Collect arterial whole blood of a patient with 1mg of heparin/ml antiguagulant. This blood yied most eccurate result.

Acid-Base Balance Investigation

Investigation of the Disturbance of Acid Base Balance There are three most frequently used parameter when investigating acid-base balance of the system, the parameter are; Blood PH Bicarbonate And pressure of CO2(PCO2) This parameter are frequently used for investigating acid-base

Acid-Base Balance of the Body System

pH of Blood Blood pH is an essential parameter for estimating acid and base balance in the body system. Before normal body system can be maintained, the extracellular fluid pH should be keep a limited range within 7.37 to 7.45.

Echange of Blood Gas (Oxygen and Carbon dioxide)

Blood Gas Hemoglobin is are ion component of red blood cell contain a protein that carried oxygen in the blood. The oxygen carried by hemoglobin is with help of hemoglobin circulated round the body system. The mechanism behind it is

water and body fluid

Water play a significant role in our body system. Water contribute the stability structure and function of the entire body system. Approximately 60% of total body fluid is made up of water, even bone is made up of approximately one-third,

Verious Sterilization technique in the medical laboraotry

PHYSICAL TECHNIQUE This technique involved radiation dry heat, moisture, boiling water, steam at 100ºC, and steam under pressure. Radiation: This method involved the used electromagnetive radiation in the microbiology laboratory to achieve this sterilization goal. In these techniques, the source


NORMAL RANGE FOR BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL FASTING BLOOD SUGAR For adults 3.3 to 5.6mmol/l or 60 t0 100mg/dl For children 2.5 to 5.0mmol/l or 45 t0 90mg/dl Post-prandial blood glucose: up to 6.9mmol/l or up to 125mg/dl RANDOM BLOOD SUGAR


Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion also called anions. FUNCTION OF ELETROLYTE IN THE BODY


LIST OF TEST UNDER E/U/CREATININE Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Bicarbonate (HCO3) Urea (U) Creatinine (Cr) Glucose (Gluc)   ESTIMATION OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM There are three method used for the estimation of these chemical substance in the serum.


SODIUM/POTASIUM ESTIMATION REAGENT   A STOCK SODIUM CHLORIDE STANDARD (1.0M) COMPOSITION Sodium chloride 45g Distilled water 1litre PREPARATION Dissolved 58.45g of sodium chloride in 20ml of distilled water, make up the solution to 1litre with distilled water. ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE


ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY REAGENT DILUTING FLUID COMPOSITION Glacial acetic acid 100ml Concentrated nitric acid 6.4ml Deionized water 1litre PREPARATION Mixed 100ml of glacial acetic acid with 200ml of deionized water, add 6.4ml of concentrated nitric acid, and


ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE REAGENT NORMAL SALINE COMPOSITION Saline                                           1g Distilled water                            100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1g of Sodium chloride in 100ml of 100ml water 01N (HCL) HYDROCHLORIC ACID (NaOH) SODIUM HYDROXIDE 01N COMPOSITION Distilled water Sodium hydroxide   PREPARATION Dissolve


BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA Almost half of non proteinous nitrogen substance found in the blood is the constituent of urea. Urea is a product of amino acid that is produce when amino acid is broken down by the liver. ESTIMATION

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

SAPMLE USE TO CARRY OUT THE TEST SPECIMEN: whole blood can be used to perform blood urea nitrogen. Since whole blood can be used, then EDTA container can be use to collect the sample. But sodium fluoride should not be


ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD REAGENT BUFFERED UREASE REAGENT COMPOSITION EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid)                     1.0g Urease                                                                           150mg Distilled water                                                              100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1.0g of EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid), and 150mg urease in 70ml of distilled water, adjust the

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

ESTIMATION OF CREATININE Creatinine is a nitrogenous product that is produced when metabolism of creatine in the skeletal and muscle. They are filter by the kidney and excreted in the urine. REAGENT SATURATED PICRIC ACID SOLUTION COMPOSITION Picric acid Distilled


Glucometer can be define as instrument use for measuring the blood sugar level of a patient. The advent of glucometer come as result of scientist try to finding quick way to estimate blood sugar of a patient due to emergency


ELECTROLYTE Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion also called anions. FUNCTION OF ELETROLYTE IN THE

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

seminal fluid analysis Seminal fluid analysis is one of the important investigation of male in fertility in medical laboratory. The often requested for men that have issue of getting a woman pregnant. For man not be able to get woman

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system Digestive and endocrine glands: Drinking too much alcohol can cause abnormal activation of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas. Buildup of these enzymes can lead to inflammation known as pancreatitis. Pancreatitis can become


Practical step of seminal fluid analysis EXAMINATION PARAMETER MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Time of arrival Appearances of the specimen Viscosity/liquefaction Volume of the specimen MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION MOTILITY Quantitative motility Qualitative motility Sperm count HOW TO COLLECT SAMPLE The sample should be collected