How To Collect High Vagina swab sample from patient for M/C/S

Collecting HVS for Microscopic culture and sensitivity On these post we going to teach you simple way of collecting HVS for M/C/S. To collect HVS for M/C/S, you should ask the patient either she is mensurating, if she is on

Morphology of bacteria

Bacterial cells are between 0.3 and 5lm in size. They have three basic forms: cocci, straight rods, and curved or spiral rods. The nucleoid consists of a very thin, long, circular DNA molecular double strand that is not surrounded by

Pathogen Terminologies

Infectiological Terminology I (Pathogen) Term and Explanation Saprophytes These microorganisms are nonpathogenic; their natural habitat is dead organic matter. Parasites Unicellular or metazoan organism living in or on an organism of another species (host) on the expense of the host


Clostridium difficile (PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS) Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. These conditions generally result from overgrowth of Clostridium difficile in the colon, usually after the normal intestinal


Clostridium botulinum (BOTULISM) It is a serious paralytic illness caused by Clostridium botulinum. The toxin (only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans) binds to receptors on peripheral nerves, where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter and inhibits nerve


Clostridium perfringens (GAS GANGRENE) Clostridium perfringens, a gram positive rod, causes wound colonization (gas gangrene) after soil, and to a lesser extent intestinal tract, contamination. The organism produces several tissue degrading enzymes (including lecithinase [alpha toxin], proteolytic and saccharolytic enzymes).


Clostridum tetani (TETANUS) Clostridium tetani, a Gram-positive rod that forms a terminal spore, is commonly found in the soil, dust and animal feces. Contamination of wounds, which provide anaerobic conditions, can lead to spore germination and tetanus, a relatively rare,

Bacteria Organisms

Types of bacteria and their economic importance Helicopter pylori which causes Ulcer. Vibro Cholerae which causes Cholera. Neisseria meningitidis which causes Meningitis. Treponema palladium which causes Syphilis. Bacillus anthracis which causes a common disease of livestock and human. Clostridum tetani

20 Types of Bacteria and Shape

COCCUS(spherical shaped bacteria) 1)Staphylococcus aureus 2)Staphylococcus epidermidis 3)Staphylococcus horminis 4)Staphylococcus pneumoniae 5)Staphylococcus haemolytical BACILLUS(rod shaped bacteria) 1)Lactobacillus specie 2)Listeria monocytogenes 3)Escherichia coli 4)Proteus specie 5)Enterobacter cloacae SPIRILLUM (spiral shaped bacteria) 1)Treponema pallidium 2)Treponema carateum 3)Treponema dentical 4)Spirillum minus 5)Fusobacterum necrophorum


These are important anaerobic covering, and it is made up of a gas tight chamber with cemented covering portal and an inlet lock for moving substance in or out the chamber. The gas usually oxygen free is expelled via the


SEMI-SOLID INDICATOR Some anaerobic jar is made up of side arm; this side arm is a point at which indicator tube is attached to the jar via a short length of rubber tubing. This type of jar have their own


THESTING ANAEROBIC JAR There are two purposes which can cause anaerobic jar not to function properly, which are; Leakage jar: when there is leakage in the jar, there is possibility of the jar not to function normally. These conditions can


ANAEROBIC INCUBATION IN CANDLE JAR When micro organism is important to grow in an atmosphere CO2, the easiest way is to place the plate culture together with a light candle and crew down the lid of the jar and incubate,


BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SPECIMEN Any sample sent for screening in the microbiology laboratory must be handle with extreme care because the sample may have biological pathogens that may cause disease to the lab personnel or may even spread to the


HOW TO HANDLE HIGH RISK SAMPLE High risk sample can be define as a sample that is suspected to carry the following high risk infections, such as HIV, HBsAg, Tuberclosis etc High risk sample like the one stated previously or


The following characteristic must be figure out when examine specimen microscopically; Colour Opacity Consistency Present of blood Pus or mucus Present of parasite, fungi, and bacteria Culture plate: type of colonies number seen either  1, 2, 3, or so on

Blood Culture

Blood culture: many thought must be put in mind when designing or adopting a reliable method, such thought are       The volume of the blood, it should be born in mind that high volume of blood faster high growth of

Automated blood culture

Automated blood culture  Automated blood culture: there are several methods developed for the automatic detection of bacteria growth in a medium. Most but all of this method depend on the obtaining of different source of metabolites, these takes place in

Cerehrospinal fluid

Cerehrospinal fluid examination  Cerehrospinal fluid: when the sampes is brought into the clinics it is necessary that the clinicians should be notified instantaneously for the organism that is suspected to be present in the sample. The sample is generally sent

Gram Negative Bacilli Method

Gram Negative Bacilli Method A loopful of stool should be inoculated into a plate of deoxycholate citrate agar and tube of selenite and incubate at 35ºC of temperature. Campylobacters palte should be also inoculated and incubate in 5%CO2 /N2  atmosphere