Category Archives: Bacteriology

Bacteriophage

Bacteriophage is the term referred to a virus that used bacteria as their host. Bacteria creates two types of toxin which are: Exotoxin Edotoxin Exotoxin A component of toxin obtained from gram negative bacteria cells envelop, the cell envelope is

VARIOUS WATER USED FOR MEDIA PREPATION

PEPTONE WATER This is water that is use for examination of water sugar called peptone water sugar. The water is for preparation of sugar media and also used for cultivation of vibro cholerae. These can take place when the sugar

TYPE OF MEDIA AND IT COMPOSITION

Nutrient Broth Nutrient Broth: these media is used for growing fastidious bacteria that is an organism that is not too difficult to cultivate. These media are basal media, in such case use as basal media for blood agar in the

Culture production evolution

On the origin of bacteriology, the culture media used by then are ox Heart or Calf brain. But with the advancement of knowledge of bacteriology, this type of media is drastically disappearing in the microbiology world, and is been replace

FAULT IN CULTURE MEDIA

There are varieties of fault found in culture media mostly when preparation of dehydrated media is in progress such as; Inappropriate weigh, inaccurate measure of water: this problem take place as a result of faulty calibration of weighing balance, and

Culture production evolution

On the origin of bacteriology, the culture media used by then are ox Heart or Calf brain. But with the advancement of knowledge of bacteriology, this type of media is drastically disappearing in the microbiology world, and is been replace

HOW TO ISOLATE A SINGLE COLONY

For isolation of a single colony, there are step required to inoculate the petri dish before the mission can be accomplished. The steps are; Sterile wire loop, take a loopful specimen and inoculate over area A. Sterilize the wire loop

Microbiology cultural techniques

TUBE CULTURE TECHNIQUE This culture technique involved the following; stop culture, deep culture and roll culture. Slope Culture: several test technique is used to classified micro organism preferably on solid medium, slope culture is one of the method mostly for

Use of petri dish for culturering

In other to study the features and the characteristics of micro organism colonies, petri dish is the apex apparatus used for the task. Petri is shallow, flat and have a large surface area. These fixtures make it possible growth of

HOW TO STORE PREPEARD MEDIA

required environment to store prepared media Just like order substance in the laboratory like the way we store chemicals, which chemical have there own environment which they can be stored, so do prepare me that has their required environment to

TYPE OF MICROBIOLOGY CULTURE MEDIA

Media is group in to two which are; Liquid media, and solid media. Liquid media: as the name implied, these types of media are liquid in nature, they are used to culture many micro organism. The organism growth on these

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION CULTURE MEDIA

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION This is the acidic or basic content required by the micro organism to growth. The PH of bacteria varies, some required acidic environment before they can growth, some other required basic environment before they can growth. But

CRETERIA OF CULTURE MEDIA

These mean the status which the media must ascertain before they can support the growth of bacteria, moisture, carbon, and nitrogen substance are very essential for artificial media to meet there requirement in other to support the growth of micro

USE OF CULTURE MEDIA

Culture media Cultue media: is a simple and artificial food which micro organism required for it growth. Before organism can be study, it must first of all be culture and isolated, this occur by studying the anatomy and physiology of

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS This simply means the process where filtration is directed to achieve a satisfactory result of filtration. In filtration there are some challenge face, this can be overcome by testing the filtration challenge. This can be done

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION The first approach on how to purify water where carried out by allowing water to pass through a bed of sand gavel and cinders. But as the knowledge of bacteriology and realization of the association of water

GASEOUS STERILIZATION

GASEOUS STERILIZATION There are some chemical substances which are gaseous in nature that are used in the laboratory for sterilization i.e formaldehyde and ethylene oxide. This substance is used as an alternative when autoclave is not available. Formaldehyde is use

CHEMICAL AGENT FOR STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL AGENT There are several chemical agent is used for disinfection. Disinfectant is a chemical substance that destroyed microorganism in an inanimate object. The chemical agent that kill germs or inhibit it growth is called germitocide. While the chemical agent

LOW TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION

LOW TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION Biological fluid also sterilized by heating it with water bath at a temperature of 56ºC for period of one hour. This process required continuous sterilization in a daily interval depending on the important of the material. On

CHEMICAL STERILIZATION

Chemical sterilization is one of the frequently used methods of sterilization in the laboratory and the entire hospital. The ways which chemical are used for sterilization depend on the strength and effect the chemical has on the micro organism. Chemical

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

These method involve the use of biological means to achieve a desired control in the material before sterilization, this material are place in the thermocouple to confront the efficacy of the process. In this process pack are prepared with a

MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING

In early origin of the study of bacteria, the used of autoclave and steam chamber design by Koch and Pasteur, they are used for sterilizing culture media. The media to be sterilized is allowed to stand in the incubator for

EFFECT OF STERILIZATION

There are many factor militating sterilization technique using autoclave, such factor are; Prevention of steam penetration does to the porosity of the load in the autoclave. Package: doe to excessive packaging in the autoclave may required prolong heating time so

Step in systematic bacteriology

Bacterial identification step The first rule in bacterial identification is that the organism must be in pure culture. A single representative colony is peak and subculture for purity and identification test are done in from the purify culture. If the

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS This simply means the process where filtration is directed to achieve a satisfactory result of filtration. In filtration there are some challenge face, this can be overcome by testing the filtration challenge. This can be done

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION

The first approach on how to purify water where carried out by allowing water to pass through a bed of sand gavel and cinders. But as the knowledge of bacteriology and realization of the association of water born disease such

GASEOUS STERILIZATION

There are some chemical substances which are gaseous in nature that are used in the laboratory for sterilization i.e formaldehyde and ethylene oxide. This substance is used as an alternative when autoclave is not available. Formaldehyde is use to for

CHEMICAL AGENT FOR STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL AGENT There are several chemical agent used for disinfection. Disinfectant is a chemical substance that destroyed microorganism in an inanimate object. The chemical agent that kill germs or inhibit it growth is called germicide. While the chemical agent that

Hot Oven Method of Sterilization

 HOT AIR OVEN we going to discuss on a Ho Oven on this post, if we can recall we have discuss on a verious type of sterilization which include; Sterilization Techniques in medical Laboratory, Verious Sterilization technique in the medical laboraotry and Using High

Using High Temprature for Sterilization

DRY HEAT TECHNIQUE This involve the use of high temperature to achieve a sterilization goal. Ithas a very good advantage, bcause it course a total destruction of microorganism cell, mechanism behind it, is  by oxidation process of their particles. this

Verious Sterilization technique in the medical laboraotry

PHYSICAL TECHNIQUE This technique involved radiation dry heat, moisture, boiling water, steam at 100ºC, and steam under pressure. Radiation: This method involved the used electromagnetive radiation in the microbiology laboratory to achieve this sterilization goal. In these techniques, the source

Sterilization Techniques in medical Laboratory

STERILLIZATION This term simply mean killing of all form of lives that is present in an equipment.  In general term sterilization simply means killing entire form of lives which is found in a sample, equipment or in an environment. But

CAPSULE STAINING

 CAPSULE STAINING This method of staining is specifically design for examination of structure of bacteria capsule. When an ordinary staining method is used, carbohydrate bacteria capsule remain unstained, in this case, they are seen as a clear zone or halo

SPORE STAINING PROCEDURE OF BACTERIA EXAMINATION

SPORE STAINING This staining is specifically develop for the process of microscopic examination of spore structure of bacteria. The spore wall is shown as impermeable to stain, as a result of that prevent decolourisation by alcohol. The spore are stained

POLYCHROME METHYLENE BLUE METHOD OF STAINING BACTERIA

POLYCHROME METHYLENE BLUE The stain has a similarity with loeffers alkaline methylene blue. They are used for demonstration of Anthrax bacilli structure in the blood. Preparation. the same with loeffer alkaline methylene blue. After that distribute in the battle, record

LOEFFER ALKALINE METHYLINE BLUE STAINING PROCEDURE

LOEFFER ALKALINE METHYLINE BLUE This is a basic dyes used for examination of microorganism structure in the microbiology laboratory, these method is usually appear to smear from cultures. The solution is slower than that of methylene blue in such way

Examination of Bacteria Morphology

MORPHOLOGY Counter staining of Gram and Ziehl Neelsen method are also used for the explanation of morphological structure of bacteria microorganism in conjunction with the following stain, malachite green, and methylene blue. MALACHITE PREPARATION Malachite green                      1g Distilled water                        100ml

Practical Examination Of Acid Bacillus

AURAMINE STAIN This method is used for examination of acid fast bacilli in a sputum specimen, by the used of Fluorescence microscopy. The method has solution procedure from one to three which are, primary, decoloriser, and counterstain. 1 PRIMARY SOLUTION

Practical Examination Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

ZIEHL NEELSEN STAINING This stain is used for preparing specimen for examination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The principle has three solutions which are; 1 Carbol Fuchsine 2 Acid Alcohols 3 Counter Stains SOLUTUON PREPARATION SOLUTION ONE Basic Fuchsin                       10g Phenol Alcohol                    

Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

GRAM STAINING This method of staining can be trace back to 1884 when a man called Christian Gram explained this method as one of the method that is very important staining in routine bacteriology. On his explanation, he group bacteria

Practical Procedure for Microscopic Examination of Motile Bacteria

MOTILE BACTERIA Sample for examination of microorganism is suspended in a fluid and examine microscopically for identification of motile bacteria. On this occasion, it could be examine that many bacteria are seen moving. They move from one position to another.

preparation Liquid and solid cultural sample for microscopic Examination

LIQUID MEDIA SPECIMEN PREPARATION STEP Sterilized wire loop by passing through flame, allowed it to red hot bring it out and allowed it to cool before picking a colony Take a loop full of culture; transfer to a clean grease

GENERAL METHOD OF MAKING SMEAR FROM CULTURE PLATE

Smear From cultural plate Use a clean grease free glass slide Mark the slide with a written material such as diamond grease or pencil, but pencil is easily rube away. Use only one smear per slide and keep the slides

Making of Wire Loop, Sterilization procedure

WIRE LOOP This is straight wire usually circle of approximately 1.5mm and 3mm made up of platinum or nichrome wire with handle which is use for picking colony from culture. Nichrome wire is generally adopted for making wire loop because

Gram Positive and Negative of Bacteria

EXAMINATION OF BACTERIA In the examination of bacteria, the shape and the morbidity can be examine with the aid of microscope, without staining reagent introduce into the sample or specimen. But in other to disclose invisible structure of the cells,

CASUATIVE AND NON-CASUATIVE AGENT OF BACTERIA

BACTERIA AS A DISEASE CASUATIVE AGENT Any microorganism live and multiply inside human body are called parasite. The body which the parasite lives is called host, in this case; the body is harboring the parasite. When the parasite live freely

GENETIC INFORMATION OF BACTERIA

DNA of Bacteria Bacteria genetic information is in corporate inside DNA, while DNA is in turn found inside the chromosome in the nucleus of the cell. DNA information are encoded by four group of nucleotide base on which are Thymine,

Energy Required by Bacteria to Grow

BACTERIA REQUIREMENT SOURCES GROWTH The bacteria are group into the following; Base on their energy And base on how they obtain carbon to manufacture organic molecules. Base on their energy Some bacteria use sun light via pigment to manufacture their

Bacteria Metabolism

 METABOLSM Life is the vital source of all living things, either plant or animals, big or small. Whatever their size may be, life is essentially important to all living things. If any organism must survived, it must be able to

Structure of Bacteria

DISCRIPTION OF BACTERIA STRUCTURE Bacteria structures are made up of some essential composition, the cell wall of the bacteria composed of lattice structure of peptidoglycan. Lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide. They are constituent that give bacteria it shape, and also confer defense

Bacteriology

Classification of Bacteria This simply means the study of bacteria. Bacteria are small unicellular microorganism that can only be seen with the aid of microscope. Bacteria exist in a different form, such as cluster, ovoid, spheroid, etc. they poses a

what is the Different between Fungi, Rickkeettsiae, and chlamydia?

FUNGI fungi are non-green plant organism, they are saprophytic or parasitic. The saprophytic fungi are beneficial to man, why that of parasitic causes different type of disease to man. Fungi been saprophytic or parasitic, they cannot manufacture their food by

GROUP OF MICROORGANISM

Microorganism is group into the following; Bacteria Virus Protozoa Fungi Algae Rickettsiae Chlamydia Although this section is mainly base on bacteria but a brief explanation of microorganism will be explain because with this explanation, it will give more insight of

What is Microorganism

MICROORGANISM Microorganisms are tiny organism which cannot be able to be seen with our naked eyes except with the help of microscope. Microorganism are ubiquitous in nature, (they are found everywhere i.e., in the air, soil, water, cloth, human bodies,

BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY

FATHER OF MICROBIOLOGY The history of microbiology can be trace back to year 1675 when a man called Anthony Von Leeuwenhoek of blessed memory, he was born in 1632 and die in 1723, lived in Delhi Holland. He is a

BACTERIA STRUCTURE

Composition of Bacteria Structure Bacteria structures are made up of some essential composition, the cell wall of the bacteria composed of lattice structure of peptidoglycan. Lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide. They are constituent that give bacteria it shape, and also confer defense