Healths

Epidemiology

Epidemiological Terminologies Epidemiology investigates the distribution of diseases, their physiological variables and social consequences in human populations, and the factors that influence disease distribution (World Health Organization [WHO] definition). The field covered by this discipline Read More

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MISCARRIAGE

A natural loss of the products of pregnancy. Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently. Some use Read More

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Pathogen Terminologies

Infectiological Terminology I (Pathogen) Term and Explanation Saprophytes These microorganisms are nonpathogenic; their natural habitat is dead organic matter. Parasites Unicellular or metazoan organism living in or on an organism of another species (host) on Read More

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INFERTILITY

Counselling. Lifestyle modification, e.g. weight optimisation, smoking cessation and regular sexual intercourse. Investigation of semen analysis and prolactin level. Mid-luteal (day 21) progesterone assay. > 30 nmol/L suggests adequate ovulation. Laparoscopy and/or hysterosalpingography (Specialist supervision). Read More

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AMENORRHOEA

Primary amenorrhoea: no menstruation by 14 years of age in the absence of secondary sexual characteristics; or failure to menstruate by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea: amenorrhoea for at least 3 months in women Read More

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ENDOMETRIOSIS

The presence and proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually within the pelvis. It may manifest as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis is made by laparoscopy. GENERAL MEASURES For women who Read More

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DYSMENORRHOEA

Lower abdominal pain that starts with the onset of menstruation, and subsides after menses have ended. It may be primary or secondary. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is associated with chronic pelvic infection, fibroids, endometriosis and adenomyosis. GENERAL Read More

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CLOSTRIDIA DIFFICILE

Clostridium difficile (PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS) Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. These conditions generally result from overgrowth of Clostridium difficile in the colon, Read More

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CLOSTRIDIA PERFRINGENS

Clostridium perfringens (GAS GANGRENE) Clostridium perfringens, a gram positive rod, causes wound colonization (gas gangrene) after soil, and to a lesser extent intestinal tract, contamination. The organism produces several tissue degrading enzymes (including lecithinase [alpha Read More

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CLOSTRIDIA TETANUS

Clostridum tetani (TETANUS) Clostridium tetani, a Gram-positive rod that forms a terminal spore, is commonly found in the soil, dust and animal feces. Contamination of wounds, which provide anaerobic conditions, can lead to spore germination Read More

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FUNGAL INFECTIONS

The skin may be infected by yeasts or fungi and the clinical presentation varies with organism, body site infected and the body’s response to the infection. Most infections are due to anthropomorphic species that infect Read More

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URTICARIA

A transient itchy inflammatory skin and mucosal condition recognised by a wheal and flare reaction. There are many causes. In most chronic cases the precipitant for the urticaria is never found. Lesions due to insect Read More

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PSORIASIS

This is an inflammatory condition of the skin and joints of unknown aetiology. Scaly red, itchy papules and plaques over extensor surfaces and in the scalp are common. The nails and skin folds are often Read More

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Bacteria Organisms

Types of bacteria and their economic importance Helicopter pylori which causes Ulcer. Vibro Cholerae which causes Cholera. Neisseria meningitidis which causes Meningitis. Treponema palladium which causes Syphilis. Bacillus anthracis which causes a common disease of Read More