Epidemiology

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Epidemiological Terminologies Epidemiology investigates the distribution of diseases, their physiological variables and social consequences in human populations, and the factors that influence disease distribution (World More∆

MISCARRIAGE

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A natural loss of the products of pregnancy. Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or More∆

Pathogen Terminologies

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Infectiological Terminology I (Pathogen) Term and Explanation Saprophytes These microorganisms are nonpathogenic; their natural habitat is dead organic matter. Parasites Unicellular or metazoan organism living More∆

INFERTILITY

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Counselling. Lifestyle modification, e.g. weight optimisation, smoking cessation and regular sexual intercourse. Investigation of semen analysis and prolactin level. Mid-luteal (day 21) progesterone assay. > More∆

AMENORRHOEA

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Primary amenorrhoea: no menstruation by 14 years of age in the absence of secondary sexual characteristics; or failure to menstruate by 16 years of age. More∆

ENDOMETRIOSIS

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The presence and proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually within the pelvis. It may manifest as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. More∆

DYSMENORRHOEA

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Lower abdominal pain that starts with the onset of menstruation, and subsides after menses have ended. It may be primary or secondary. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is More∆

CLOSTRIDIA DIFFICILE

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Clostridium difficile (PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS) Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. These conditions More∆

CLOSTRIDIA PERFRINGENS

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Clostridium perfringens (GAS GANGRENE) Clostridium perfringens, a gram positive rod, causes wound colonization (gas gangrene) after soil, and to a lesser extent intestinal tract, contamination. More∆

CLOSTRIDIA TETANUS

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Clostridum tetani (TETANUS) Clostridium tetani, a Gram-positive rod that forms a terminal spore, is commonly found in the soil, dust and animal feces. Contamination of More∆

FUNGAL INFECTIONS

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The skin may be infected by yeasts or fungi and the clinical presentation varies with organism, body site infected and the body’s response to the More∆

URTICARIA

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A transient itchy inflammatory skin and mucosal condition recognised by a wheal and flare reaction. There are many causes. In most chronic cases the precipitant More∆

PSORIASIS

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This is an inflammatory condition of the skin and joints of unknown aetiology. Scaly red, itchy papules and plaques over extensor surfaces and in the More∆

LEG ULCERS, COMPLICATED

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A chronic relapsing disorder of the lower limbs, which usually occurs in middle-aged women. It has many causes and is often associated with lipodermatosclerosis (bound-down, More∆

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Bacteria Organisms

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Types of bacteria and their economic importance Helicopter pylori which causes Ulcer. Vibro Cholerae which causes Cholera. Neisseria meningitidis which causes Meningitis. Treponema palladium which More∆