Morphology of bacteria

Bacterial cells are between 0.3 and 5lm in size. They have three basic forms: cocci, straight rods, and curved or spiral rods. The nucleoid consists of a very thin, long, circular DNA molecular double strand that is not surrounded by a membrane. Among the nonessential genetic structures are the plasmids. The cytoplasmic membrane harbors numerous […]

Introduction to Med Lab


Epidemiological Terminologies Epidemiology investigates the distribution of diseases, their physiological variables and social consequences in human populations, and the factors that influence disease distribution (World Health Organization [WHO] definition). The field covered by this discipline can thus be defined as medical problems involving large collectives. The rule of thumb on infectious diseases is that their […]



A natural loss of the products of pregnancy. Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently. Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks of gestation, after which fetal death is known as a stillbirth. The most common symptom […]


Pathogen Terminologies

Infectiological Terminology I (Pathogen) Term and Explanation Saprophytes These microorganisms are nonpathogenic; their natural habitat is dead organic matter. Parasites Unicellular or metazoan organism living in or on an organism of another species (host) on the expense of the host Commensals Normal inhabitants of skin and mucosa; the normal flora is thus the total commensal […]

News Updates

LASPOTECH 101.9 FM gets license to operate radio station

LASPOTECH 101.9 FM gets license to operate radio station Igbagboyemi Oladele The Lagos state polytechnic has acquired a license to operate a radio station. The institution rector, Mr. Samuel Sogunro stated this in his address at the 40th-anniversary press conference. He confirmed that the National Broadcasting Commission, NBC, granted the radio station license to the […]



Counselling. Lifestyle modification, e.g. weight optimisation, smoking cessation and regular sexual intercourse. Investigation of semen analysis and prolactin level. Mid-luteal (day 21) progesterone assay. > 30 nmol/L suggests adequate ovulation. Laparoscopy and/or hysterosalpingography (Specialist supervision). MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat the underlying disease. For induction of ovulation: Clomifene, oral, 50 mg daily on days 5–9 of the […]



Hirsutism refers to terminal hair growth in amounts that are socially undesirable, typically following a male pattern of distribution. Virilisation refers to the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a woman. This condition requires referral to a tertiary hospital for investigation and management. REFERRAL »      All cases.



Primary amenorrhoea: no menstruation by 14 years of age in the absence of secondary sexual characteristics; or failure to menstruate by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea: amenorrhoea for at least 3 months in women with previous normal menses Investigations »      Body mass index. »     Urine pregnancy test. »      Pelvic ultrasound. » […]



The presence and proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually within the pelvis. It may manifest as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis is made by laparoscopy. GENERAL MEASURES For women who wish to conceive, referral for surgery. MEDICINE TREATMENT Combined oral contraceptives for 6 months. OR Medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral, 30 mg […]



DESCRIPTION PID includes salpingitis with or without oöphoritis and, as precise clinical localisation is often difficult, denotes the spectrum of conditions resulting from infection of the upper genital tract. Sequelae include: »     recurrent infections if inadequately treated, »      infertility, »             increased probability of ectopic pregnancy, and »       chronic pelvic pain. Stage […]



INTRODUCTION Surgical procedures as dictated by the diagnosis. Perform a transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial sampling in all women over 45 years of age. Actively exclude organic causes, e.g. fibroids, for abnormal uterine bleeding. MEDICINE TREATMENT Dysfunctional uterine bleeding implies that no organic cause is present. ARREST OF ACUTE HAEMORRHAGE For excessively heavy anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding: […]



Lower abdominal pain that starts with the onset of menstruation, and subsides after menses have ended. It may be primary or secondary. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is associated with chronic pelvic infection, fibroids, endometriosis and adenomyosis. GENERAL MEASURES For secondary dysmenorrhoea, investigate and treat the underlying condition. MEDICINE TREATMENT Symptomatic relief: Paracetamol, oral, 1 g 4–6 hourly […]



WARTS abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus Superficial muco-cutaneous infection caused by the human papilloma virus. GENERAL MEASURES Cryotherapy. Check patients with anogenital warts for the presence of other STIs. MEDICINE TREATMENT Cutaneous warts Treatment seldom indicated. Anogenital warts Podophyllin 20% in Tinct. Benz. Co., topical. Apply at weekly intervals to […]



Clostridium difficile (PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS) Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. These conditions generally result from overgrowth of Clostridium difficile in the colon, usually after the normal intestinal microbiota flora has been disturbed by antimicrobial chemotherapy. People in good health usually do not […]



Clostridium botulinum (BOTULISM) It is a serious paralytic illness caused by Clostridium botulinum. The toxin (only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans) binds to receptors on peripheral nerves, where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter and inhibits nerve impulses. Flaccid paralysis and often death (from respiratory and/or cardiac failure) ensue. The organism does […]



Clostridium perfringens (GAS GANGRENE) Clostridium perfringens, a gram positive rod, causes wound colonization (gas gangrene) after soil, and to a lesser extent intestinal tract, contamination. The organism produces several tissue degrading enzymes (including lecithinase [alpha toxin], proteolytic and saccharolytic enzymes). Necrosis and destruction of blood vessels and the surrounding tissue, especially muscle, (myonecrosis is a […]



Clostridum tetani (TETANUS) Clostridium tetani, a Gram-positive rod that forms a terminal spore, is commonly found in the soil, dust and animal feces. Contamination of wounds, which provide anaerobic conditions, can lead to spore germination and tetanus, a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease. Tetanus is also know as lockjaw because of the patient’s inability […]



The skin may be infected by yeasts or fungi and the clinical presentation varies with organism, body site infected and the body’s response to the infection. Most infections are due to anthropomorphic species that infect humans primarily. Yeasts such as Candida spp (intertrigo, thrush) and Pityrosporum spp (tinea/pityriasis vesicolor, folliculitis) are common. Dermatophyte (tinea) infections […]



Lesions due to insect bite often grouped or in a linear arrangement, show a central bite mark and are on exposed areas of the body. Initial lesion is a red papule, which may blister, become excoriated, and then heal with hyperpigmentation. Usually occur in crops over several months. Chronic, severe, persistent reactions may be seen […]



A transient itchy inflammatory skin and mucosal condition recognised by a wheal and flare reaction. There are many causes. In most chronic cases the precipitant for the urticaria is never found. Lesions due to insect bite are often grouped, show a central bite mark and are on exposed areas of the body. They are often […]