Bacteriophage

Bacteriophage

Bacteriophage is the term referred to a virus that used bacteria as their host. Bacteria creates two types of toxin which are: Exotoxin Edotoxin Exotoxin A component of toxin obtained from gram More »

VARIOUS WATER USED FOR MEDIA PREPATION

VARIOUS WATER USED FOR MEDIA PREPATION

PEPTONE WATER This is water that is use for examination of water sugar called peptone water sugar. The water is for preparation of sugar media and also used for cultivation of vibro More »

TYPE OF MEDIA AND IT COMPOSITION

TYPE OF MEDIA AND IT COMPOSITION

Nutrient Broth Nutrient Broth: these media is used for growing fastidious bacteria that is an organism that is not too difficult to cultivate. These media are basal media, in such case use More »

Culture production evolution

Culture production evolution

On the origin of bacteriology, the culture media used by then are ox Heart or Calf brain. But with the advancement of knowledge of bacteriology, this type of media is drastically disappearing More »

FAULT IN CULTURE MEDIA

FAULT IN CULTURE MEDIA

There are varieties of fault found in culture media mostly when preparation of dehydrated media is in progress such as; Inappropriate weigh, inaccurate measure of water: this problem take place as a More »

Culture production evolution

Culture production evolution

On the origin of bacteriology, the culture media used by then are ox Heart or Calf brain. But with the advancement of knowledge of bacteriology, this type of media is drastically disappearing More »

HOW TO ISOLATE A SINGLE COLONY

HOW TO ISOLATE A SINGLE COLONY

For isolation of a single colony, there are step required to inoculate the petri dish before the mission can be accomplished. The steps are; Sterile wire loop, take a loopful specimen and More »

Microbiology cultural techniques

Microbiology cultural techniques

TUBE CULTURE TECHNIQUE This culture technique involved the following; stop culture, deep culture and roll culture. Slope Culture: several test technique is used to classified micro organism preferably on solid medium, slope More »

Use of petri dish for culturering

Use of petri dish for culturering

In other to study the features and the characteristics of micro organism colonies, petri dish is the apex apparatus used for the task. Petri is shallow, flat and have a large surface More »

HOW TO STORE PREPEARD MEDIA

HOW TO STORE PREPEARD MEDIA

required environment to store prepared media Just like order substance in the laboratory like the way we store chemicals, which chemical have there own environment which they can be stored, so do More »

TYPE OF MICROBIOLOGY CULTURE MEDIA

TYPE OF MICROBIOLOGY CULTURE MEDIA

Media is group in to two which are; Liquid media, and solid media. Liquid media: as the name implied, these types of media are liquid in nature, they are used to culture More »

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION CULTURE MEDIA

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION CULTURE MEDIA

HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION This is the acidic or basic content required by the micro organism to growth. The PH of bacteria varies, some required acidic environment before they can growth, some other More »

CRETERIA OF CULTURE MEDIA

CRETERIA OF CULTURE MEDIA

These mean the status which the media must ascertain before they can support the growth of bacteria, moisture, carbon, and nitrogen substance are very essential for artificial media to meet there requirement More »

USE OF CULTURE MEDIA

USE OF CULTURE MEDIA

Culture media Cultue media: is a simple and artificial food which micro organism required for it growth. Before organism can be study, it must first of all be culture and isolated, this More »

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS This simply means the process where filtration is directed to achieve a satisfactory result of filtration. In filtration there are some challenge face, this can be overcome by More »

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION The first approach on how to purify water where carried out by allowing water to pass through a bed of sand gavel and cinders. But as the knowledge of More »

GASEOUS STERILIZATION

GASEOUS STERILIZATION

GASEOUS STERILIZATION There are some chemical substances which are gaseous in nature that are used in the laboratory for sterilization i.e formaldehyde and ethylene oxide. This substance is used as an alternative More »

CHEMICAL AGENT FOR STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL AGENT FOR STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL AGENT There are several chemical agent is used for disinfection. Disinfectant is a chemical substance that destroyed microorganism in an inanimate object. The chemical agent that kill germs or inhibit it More »

LOW TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION

LOW TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION

LOW TEMPERATURE STERILIZATION Biological fluid also sterilized by heating it with water bath at a temperature of 56ºC for period of one hour. This process required continuous sterilization in a daily interval More »

CHEMICAL STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL STERILIZATION

Chemical sterilization is one of the frequently used methods of sterilization in the laboratory and the entire hospital. The ways which chemical are used for sterilization depend on the strength and effect More »

 

Different between Bohr Model and Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom

 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom

Bohr Theory give idea about atom, however, the Theory has some major shortcoming. Bohr Theory give explanation about energies transmission of electron in the hydrogen, and hydrogen like atoms, but fail to explain that of atom having more than one electron, even the hydrogen that have only one electron, the theory could not give explanation of the different spectral line intensities.

As such Quantum mechanics give theory known as wave mechanic that is more sophisticated than Bohr Theory, these theory can provide answer to what Bohr did not, and further more give explanation about spectral line intensities of atom with one electron, and for example wave mechanic can give full explanation of energy and spectra line of hydrogen. More also wave mechanic can be used to explain atoms with more than one electrons.

Base on the explanation above we can observe that wave quantum mechanics can be used to explain energy and properties and also explain the properties of atom with more than one electron, as such Quantum mechanics can be define as the branch of science that has ability to explain the dual behaviors of matter. Quantum mechanics is a theoretical science that focus on the study of microscopic motion of an objects with visible wave-likes and particle-like properties. This branch of science is independently developed by the following different scientist, Erwin Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie and Werner.

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Quantum mechanical model was developed on the basis of quantum theory, that say matter also have associated wave properties. According to quantum theory is not possible to know the position and momentum of an electron at the sometime, if possible that the position of electron is known, them the momentum is unknown, and if possible that the momentum of an electron is known, then the position is unknown, this variation of position of electron ant it momentum, give rise to principle known as Uncertainty Principle

Also quantum mechanical model of atom use complex shape of orbital, sometimes known as electron clouds, this model explain the probability where electron could found in space. As such this model is based on probability rather than that of certainty, the explanation is that the model is not sure of where electron is, but provide a volume of space where if search electron could be seen there.

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Now major different between Bohr Theory and Quantum mechanics is that Bohr Theory provide that electron circling round the nucleus in a fixed orbit, just like how planet move round the sun. Whereas Wave mechanical model, is influence by Heisenberg uncertainty principle, hold that electron did not move round the nucleus in a fixed orbit. As such disagree with Bohr by saying that is not possible to know the position and momentum of electron at the same times, as such wave mechanics use Schrodinger equation to predict where the electron may be at any given time without knowing the exact position, this model is based on probability.

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There are other difference, such as difference in the shape of electron orbits/atomic orbitals; inability of Bohr model to account for hybrid orbitals, molecular orbital resonance etc. but the major different is that Bohr model claim to know the exact path which electron travels, while wave mechanic did not claim to know where the electron is at any given time, but only can predict where electron can be found.

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