Structure of Bacteria


Bacteria structures are made up of some essential composition, the cell wall of the bacteria composed of lattice structure of peptidoglycan. Lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide. They are constituent that give bacteria it shape, and also confer defense to cytoplasmic membrane. Polymer sugar and amino acid are found in some certain bacteria which covered them with some certain capsule.

The material is loosely attached to the layer, and all are secreted by the organism.

Polyglutamic acid in bacilli anthrax’s is example of polypeptide capsular material. In some case capsules has shown relationship with bacteria and virulence. The cytoplasmic membranes is made up of a layer which has thickness of 5-10micrometer of lipoprotein, these encircle the cytoplasm, and it contain a soluble broken down and precursor of large molecules together organelles, such as ribosome in a protenacious clear material that melt in hot water and thickness to jelly when cold. Inside the cytoplasm there is bacteria chromosome this chromosome consist a single close ring of double stranded DNA. The material for synthesis of protein is encoded in the DNA of bacteria and the ribosome arrange the protein material that are made up of protein material and RNA. When fission take place in bacteria, it duplicate the ribosome, then the duplicate passed to new cells there by make sure that uniformity among of the single clone. Bacteria consist of some DNA which are smaller and circular in nature called plasmid. The plasmid is a molecule in the bacteria that carried gene that confer difference antibiotics, resistance on that carried them. The most interesting part of these is that the plasmid is transferred between set of non-pathogenic bacteria via conjugation that involves sex mate. Through sex pili of the bacteria.

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Pili are found in the bacteria cells it offer attachment of pathogen to it host cells. Diagnosis feature of these bacterial is a problem to bacteriologist, because of the similarity of these pili in the different type of bacteria species.

Flagella are organelles which they used for their movement, they are made up of protein called flagelletin, and these have thickness of about 20micromter. The movement of bacteria occurs do to the rotation of the flagella, these enable the bacteria to travel as far as 50micrometer per second.


Flagella varies in number, these variation depend on each of the bacteria. Some bacteria have one flagella on it pole, these is called monotrichate, some have two flagella located in both side of the pole, this type is called amphitrichate, some have three flagella either at both side pole or one side of the pole of the bacteria, these is called lophotrichate, some bacteria that have flagella surrounding the entire body is called petrichate.



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