ELECTROLYTE

ELECTROLYTE

Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion also More »

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

LIST OF TEST UNDER E/U/CREATININE Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Bicarbonate (HCO3) Urea (U) Creatinine (Cr) Glucose (Gluc)   ESTIMATION OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM There are three method used for the More »

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASIUM ESTIMATION REAGENT   A STOCK SODIUM CHLORIDE STANDARD (1.0M) COMPOSITION Sodium chloride 45g Distilled water 1litre PREPARATION Dissolved 58.45g of sodium chloride in 20ml of distilled water, make up the solution to More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY REAGENT DILUTING FLUID COMPOSITION Glacial acetic acid 100ml Concentrated nitric acid 6.4ml Deionized water 1litre PREPARATION Mixed 100ml of glacial acetic acid with 200ml of deionized More »

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE REAGENT NORMAL SALINE COMPOSITION Saline                                           1g Distilled water                            100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1g of Sodium chloride in 100ml of 100ml water 01N (HCL) HYDROCHLORIC ACID (NaOH) SODIUM HYDROXIDE 01N More »

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA Almost half of non proteinous nitrogen substance found in the blood is the constituent of urea. Urea is a product of amino acid that is produce when amino More »

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

SAPMLE USE TO CARRY OUT THE TEST SPECIMEN: whole blood can be used to perform blood urea nitrogen. Since whole blood can be used, then EDTA container can be use to collect More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD REAGENT BUFFERED UREASE REAGENT COMPOSITION EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid)                     1.0g Urease                                                                           150mg Distilled water                                                              100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1.0g of EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid), and 150mg More »

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

ESTIMATION OF CREATININE Creatinine is a nitrogenous product that is produced when metabolism of creatine in the skeletal and muscle. They are filter by the kidney and excreted in the urine. REAGENT More »

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

Glucometer can be define as instrument use for measuring the blood sugar level of a patient. The advent of glucometer come as result of scientist try to finding quick way to estimate More »

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

ELECTROLYTE Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion More »

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

seminal fluid analysis Seminal fluid analysis is one of the important investigation of male in fertility in medical laboratory. The often requested for men that have issue of getting a woman pregnant. More »

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system Digestive and endocrine glands: Drinking too much alcohol can cause abnormal activation of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas. Buildup of these enzymes can lead More »

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

Practical step of seminal fluid analysis EXAMINATION PARAMETER MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Time of arrival Appearances of the specimen Viscosity/liquefaction Volume of the specimen MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION MOTILITY Quantitative motility Qualitative motility Sperm count HOW More »

 

Structure of Bacteria

DISCRIPTION OF BACTERIA STRUCTURE

Bacteria structures are made up of some essential composition, the cell wall of the bacteria composed of lattice structure of peptidoglycan. Lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide. They are constituent that give bacteria it shape, and also confer defense to cytoplasmic membrane. Polymer sugar and amino acid are found in some certain bacteria which covered them with some certain capsule.

The material is loosely attached to the layer, and all are secreted by the organism.

Polyglutamic acid in bacilli anthrax’s is example of polypeptide capsular material. In some case capsules has shown relationship with bacteria and virulence. The cytoplasmic membranes is made up of a layer which has thickness of 5-10micrometer of lipoprotein, these encircle the cytoplasm, and it contain a soluble broken down and precursor of large molecules together organelles, such as ribosome in a protenacious clear material that melt in hot water and thickness to jelly when cold. Inside the cytoplasm there is bacteria chromosome this chromosome consist a single close ring of double stranded DNA. The material for synthesis of protein is encoded in the DNA of bacteria and the ribosome arrange the protein material that are made up of protein material and RNA. When fission take place in bacteria, it duplicate the ribosome, then the duplicate passed to new cells there by make sure that uniformity among of the single clone. Bacteria consist of some DNA which are smaller and circular in nature called plasmid. The plasmid is a molecule in the bacteria that carried gene that confer difference antibiotics, resistance on that carried them. The most interesting part of these is that the plasmid is transferred between set of non-pathogenic bacteria via conjugation that involves sex mate. Through sex pili of the bacteria.

READ  BACTERIA STRUCTURE

Pili are found in the bacteria cells it offer attachment of pathogen to it host cells. Diagnosis feature of these bacterial is a problem to bacteriologist, because of the similarity of these pili in the different type of bacteria species.

Flagella are organelles which they used for their movement, they are made up of protein called flagelletin, and these have thickness of about 20micromter. The movement of bacteria occurs do to the rotation of the flagella, these enable the bacteria to travel as far as 50micrometer per second.

Flagella varies in number, these variation depend on each of the bacteria. Some bacteria have one flagella on it pole, these is called monotrichate, some have two flagella located in both side of the pole, this type is called amphitrichate, some have three flagella either at both side pole or one side of the pole of the bacteria, these is called lophotrichate, some bacteria that have flagella surrounding the entire body is called petrichate.

 

Leave a Reply