CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS

CONTROL OF FILTRATION PROCESS This simply means the process where filtration is directed to achieve a satisfactory result of filtration. In filtration there are some challenge face, this can be overcome by More »

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION

STERILIZATION BY FILTRATION

The first approach on how to purify water where carried out by allowing water to pass through a bed of sand gavel and cinders. But as the knowledge of bacteriology and realization More »

GASEOUS STERILIZATION

GASEOUS STERILIZATION

There are some chemical substances which are gaseous in nature that are used in the laboratory for sterilization i.e formaldehyde and ethylene oxide. This substance is used as an alternative when autoclave More »

CHEMICAL AGENT FOR STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL AGENT FOR STERILIZATION

CHEMICAL AGENT There are several chemical agent used for disinfection. Disinfectant is a chemical substance that destroyed microorganism in an inanimate object. The chemical agent that kill germs or inhibit it growth More »

Hot Oven Method of Sterilization

Hot Oven Method of Sterilization

 HOT AIR OVEN we going to discuss on a Ho Oven on this post, if we can recall we have discuss on a verious type of sterilization which include; Sterilization Techniques in medical More »

Using High Temprature for Sterilization

Using High Temprature for Sterilization

DRY HEAT TECHNIQUE This involve the use of high temperature to achieve a sterilization goal. Ithas a very good advantage, bcause it course a total destruction of microorganism cell, mechanism behind it, More »

Verious Sterilization technique in the medical laboraotry

Verious Sterilization technique in the medical laboraotry

PHYSICAL TECHNIQUE This technique involved radiation dry heat, moisture, boiling water, steam at 100ºC, and steam under pressure. Radiation: This method involved the used electromagnetive radiation in the microbiology laboratory to achieve More »

Sterilization Techniques in medical Laboratory

Sterilization Techniques in medical Laboratory

STERILLIZATION This term simply mean killing of all form of lives that is present in an equipment.  In general term sterilization simply means killing entire form of lives which is found in More »

CAPSULE STAINING

CAPSULE STAINING

 CAPSULE STAINING This method of staining is specifically design for examination of structure of bacteria capsule. When an ordinary staining method is used, carbohydrate bacteria capsule remain unstained, in this case, they More »

SPORE STAINING PROCEDURE OF BACTERIA EXAMINATION

SPORE STAINING PROCEDURE OF BACTERIA EXAMINATION

SPORE STAINING This staining is specifically develop for the process of microscopic examination of spore structure of bacteria. The spore wall is shown as impermeable to stain, as a result of that More »

POLYCHROME METHYLENE BLUE METHOD OF STAINING BACTERIA

POLYCHROME METHYLENE BLUE METHOD OF STAINING BACTERIA

POLYCHROME METHYLENE BLUE The stain has a similarity with loeffers alkaline methylene blue. They are used for demonstration of Anthrax bacilli structure in the blood. Preparation. the same with loeffer alkaline methylene More »

LOEFFER ALKALINE METHYLINE BLUE STAINING PROCEDURE

LOEFFER ALKALINE METHYLINE BLUE STAINING PROCEDURE

LOEFFER ALKALINE METHYLINE BLUE This is a basic dyes used for examination of microorganism structure in the microbiology laboratory, these method is usually appear to smear from cultures. The solution is slower More »

Examination of Bacteria Morphology

Examination of Bacteria Morphology

MORPHOLOGY Counter staining of Gram and Ziehl Neelsen method are also used for the explanation of morphological structure of bacteria microorganism in conjunction with the following stain, malachite green, and methylene blue. More »

Practical Examination Of Acid Bacillus

Practical Examination Of Acid Bacillus

AURAMINE STAIN This method is used for examination of acid fast bacilli in a sputum specimen, by the used of Fluorescence microscopy. The method has solution procedure from one to three which More »

Practical Examination Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Practical Examination Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

ZIEHL NEELSEN STAINING This stain is used for preparing specimen for examination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The principle has three solutions which are; 1 Carbol Fuchsine 2 Acid Alcohols 3 Counter Stains SOLUTUON More »

Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

GRAM STAINING This method of staining can be trace back to 1884 when a man called Christian Gram explained this method as one of the method that is very important staining in More »

Practical Procedure for Microscopic Examination of Motile Bacteria

Practical Procedure for Microscopic Examination of Motile Bacteria

MOTILE BACTERIA Sample for examination of microorganism is suspended in a fluid and examine microscopically for identification of motile bacteria. On this occasion, it could be examine that many bacteria are seen More »

preparation Liquid and solid cultural sample for microscopic Examination

preparation Liquid and solid cultural sample for microscopic Examination

LIQUID MEDIA SPECIMEN PREPARATION STEP Sterilized wire loop by passing through flame, allowed it to red hot bring it out and allowed it to cool before picking a colony Take a loop More »

GENERAL METHOD OF MAKING SMEAR FROM CULTURE PLATE

GENERAL METHOD OF MAKING SMEAR FROM CULTURE PLATE

Smear From cultural plate Use a clean grease free glass slide Mark the slide with a written material such as diamond grease or pencil, but pencil is easily rube away. Use only More »

Making of Wire Loop, Sterilization procedure

Making of Wire Loop, Sterilization procedure

WIRE LOOP This is straight wire usually circle of approximately 1.5mm and 3mm made up of platinum or nichrome wire with handle which is use for picking colony from culture. Nichrome wire More »

 

Limitation of Bohr Theory

Shortcoming of Bohr Theory

Despite the fact of direction which Bohr explain that give us general information about atom, theory still have some questionable assumption, which is called shortcoming of Bohr theory;

  1. Bohr Theory did not explain the atomic spectra containing more than one electron.
  2. The theory fail to predict the relative intensities of the line or splitting of the line when atomic excitation in the magnetic field take on the atom with a single electron, place called Zeeman Effect. Spectral line were discovered to be more complex when examined with high resolution equipment’s, even in the absent of the external field.
  3. The theory neglect wave nature of electron.
  4. It violates the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle, by saying it is possible to know exactly the position and study the motion of the electron at the same times.
  5. It recognize electron to be in stationary position, having exact point and distance from the nucleus.
  6. It failed to explain molecular bonds
  7. It failed to predict the relative intensities of line spectra
  8. It failed to explained fine structure and hyperfine structure in spectral lines.
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