ELECTROLYTE

ELECTROLYTE

Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion also More »

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

LIST OF TEST UNDER E/U/CREATININE Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Bicarbonate (HCO3) Urea (U) Creatinine (Cr) Glucose (Gluc)   ESTIMATION OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM There are three method used for the More »

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASIUM ESTIMATION REAGENT   A STOCK SODIUM CHLORIDE STANDARD (1.0M) COMPOSITION Sodium chloride 45g Distilled water 1litre PREPARATION Dissolved 58.45g of sodium chloride in 20ml of distilled water, make up the solution to More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY REAGENT DILUTING FLUID COMPOSITION Glacial acetic acid 100ml Concentrated nitric acid 6.4ml Deionized water 1litre PREPARATION Mixed 100ml of glacial acetic acid with 200ml of deionized More »

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE REAGENT NORMAL SALINE COMPOSITION Saline                                           1g Distilled water                            100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1g of Sodium chloride in 100ml of 100ml water 01N (HCL) HYDROCHLORIC ACID (NaOH) SODIUM HYDROXIDE 01N More »

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA Almost half of non proteinous nitrogen substance found in the blood is the constituent of urea. Urea is a product of amino acid that is produce when amino More »

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

SAPMLE USE TO CARRY OUT THE TEST SPECIMEN: whole blood can be used to perform blood urea nitrogen. Since whole blood can be used, then EDTA container can be use to collect More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD REAGENT BUFFERED UREASE REAGENT COMPOSITION EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid)                     1.0g Urease                                                                           150mg Distilled water                                                              100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1.0g of EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid), and 150mg More »

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

ESTIMATION OF CREATININE Creatinine is a nitrogenous product that is produced when metabolism of creatine in the skeletal and muscle. They are filter by the kidney and excreted in the urine. REAGENT More »

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

Glucometer can be define as instrument use for measuring the blood sugar level of a patient. The advent of glucometer come as result of scientist try to finding quick way to estimate More »

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

ELECTROLYTE Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion More »

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

seminal fluid analysis Seminal fluid analysis is one of the important investigation of male in fertility in medical laboratory. The often requested for men that have issue of getting a woman pregnant. More »

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system Digestive and endocrine glands: Drinking too much alcohol can cause abnormal activation of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas. Buildup of these enzymes can lead More »

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

Practical step of seminal fluid analysis EXAMINATION PARAMETER MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Time of arrival Appearances of the specimen Viscosity/liquefaction Volume of the specimen MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION MOTILITY Quantitative motility Qualitative motility Sperm count HOW More »

 

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

LIST OF TEST UNDER E/U/CREATININE

  1. Sodium (Na)
  2. Potassium (K)
  3. Chloride (Cl)
  4. Bicarbonate (HCO3)
  5. Urea (U)
  6. Creatinine (Cr)
  7. Glucose (Gluc)

 

  • ESTIMATION OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM

There are three method used for the estimation of these chemical substance in the serum.

Below are the methods;

  1. Flame emission spectrometry
  2. Ion selective electrode (ISE)
  3. Solid phase or dry reagent technique

 

But we only focus on flame photometer.

 

FLAME PHOTOMETER

Flame photometer has the following component

Nebulizer: these component help in mixing the sample with air and then spray it to the burner as a fine spray constantly.

Mixing Chamber with Baffles: these components of the photometer help in mixing the atomized and fuel. While the baffles help in separating large particle to waste and allowed the small particle to pass through the flame.

Burner: these component help to reduce metal to atomic state and excite the atom to give out light, with this, it help to control the gas and air pressures, with this control, it help to maintain steady blue flame.

Wavelength Selector: these component help to select wavelength emission that to be measure.

 

When a light focus the flame this help in selecting a narrow band filter wavelength.

The dilution sample and the standard are carried out manually or by peristaltic pump that is a part of the flame photometry. The diluting substances are made up of lithium. The diluted sample is drowned via capillary tube with the help of the air supply by the compressor.

The air current in the instrument cause splitting of the sample into a haze of tiny droplets, (nebulisation) a larger droplet of the sample go down to the bottom of the nebulising chamber as a waste, while the remaining haze mixed with propane.

READ  FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

The mixture pass through the baffle plate, when passing the air current is ignited which then cause burning and convert the present of metals to atomic forms.

Photo detector measure accurately light wavelength from the flame then the signals from the sodium and potassium are compared from that of lithium at a constant concentration when any change signal is detected as a result of irregularity in the flame, are compare for the same in the lithium channel.

The results are display via digital panel and printed or write out to serve as permanent record.

 

OBSERVATION

Flame: gas and air pressure must be regulated carefully so that it will give a constant flame that is blue. The following gas can be used propane,

Propane

Butane

Acetylene

Coal gas

Nebulizer: make sure the rate of sampling is constant and also the capillary tube must be washing it on every used.

Standard: it is necessary that when carrying out a series of determinations, make sure that standard solution is correctly inserted to give an accurate reading.

In other to avoid the contamination of the standard solution don’t insert a suction probe directly into the storage bottle.

For instrument that have build in diluters, standard solution which have the same viscosity with the plasma or serum should used. But where an internal reference is used, standard, and samples are diluted in a solution containing 15mmol/l litre of lithium nitrate.

SODIUM/POTASIUM ESTIMATION

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

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