ELECTROLYTE

ELECTROLYTE

Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion also More »

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

LIST OF TEST UNDER E/U/CREATININE Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Bicarbonate (HCO3) Urea (U) Creatinine (Cr) Glucose (Gluc)   ESTIMATION OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM There are three method used for the More »

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASIUM ESTIMATION REAGENT   A STOCK SODIUM CHLORIDE STANDARD (1.0M) COMPOSITION Sodium chloride 45g Distilled water 1litre PREPARATION Dissolved 58.45g of sodium chloride in 20ml of distilled water, make up the solution to More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY REAGENT DILUTING FLUID COMPOSITION Glacial acetic acid 100ml Concentrated nitric acid 6.4ml Deionized water 1litre PREPARATION Mixed 100ml of glacial acetic acid with 200ml of deionized More »

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE REAGENT NORMAL SALINE COMPOSITION Saline                                           1g Distilled water                            100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1g of Sodium chloride in 100ml of 100ml water 01N (HCL) HYDROCHLORIC ACID (NaOH) SODIUM HYDROXIDE 01N More »

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA Almost half of non proteinous nitrogen substance found in the blood is the constituent of urea. Urea is a product of amino acid that is produce when amino More »

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

SAPMLE USE TO CARRY OUT THE TEST SPECIMEN: whole blood can be used to perform blood urea nitrogen. Since whole blood can be used, then EDTA container can be use to collect More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD REAGENT BUFFERED UREASE REAGENT COMPOSITION EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid)                     1.0g Urease                                                                           150mg Distilled water                                                              100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1.0g of EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid), and 150mg More »

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

ESTIMATION OF CREATININE Creatinine is a nitrogenous product that is produced when metabolism of creatine in the skeletal and muscle. They are filter by the kidney and excreted in the urine. REAGENT More »

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

Glucometer can be define as instrument use for measuring the blood sugar level of a patient. The advent of glucometer come as result of scientist try to finding quick way to estimate More »

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

ELECTROLYTE Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion More »

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

seminal fluid analysis Seminal fluid analysis is one of the important investigation of male in fertility in medical laboratory. The often requested for men that have issue of getting a woman pregnant. More »

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system Digestive and endocrine glands: Drinking too much alcohol can cause abnormal activation of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas. Buildup of these enzymes can lead More »

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

Practical step of seminal fluid analysis EXAMINATION PARAMETER MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Time of arrival Appearances of the specimen Viscosity/liquefaction Volume of the specimen MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION MOTILITY Quantitative motility Qualitative motility Sperm count HOW More »

 

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

seminal fluid analysis

Seminal fluid analysis is one of the important investigation of male in fertility in medical laboratory. The often requested for men that have issue of getting a woman pregnant. For man not be able to get woman pregnant, it may be cause by many factor, which are,

Sexually transmitted infection.

Sexually transmitted infection is the major cause of infertility in both sex, when the bacterial that cause the infection has stay long in the body system it cause a lot of damage which may result to sterility. Microorganism that often responsible for sexually transmitted infection are;

Staphylococcus aureus

Escherichia coli

Neisseria gonorrhea

Chlamydia etc.

Each of this bacteria has it sign and symptom, but in some body system it might so sign and symptom, but remain silent in the body and start destroying the system.

EXAMINATION PARAMETER

MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

  • Time of arrival
  • Appearances of the specimen
  • Viscosity/liquefaction
  • Volume of the specimen

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

MOTILITY

  1. Quantitative motility
  2. Qualitative motility

Sperm count

HOW TO COLLECT SAMPLE

  • The sample should be collected after abstaining from sex for 2-5 days
  • The sample should be collected in the laboratory by well trained laboratory health personnel via masturbation
  • The sample must be delivered to the laboratory within 2 hours after collection when the sample is collected outside of the laboratory
  • The used of condom is not allowed, but it can be use if he condom if free of spermicides or lubricant
  • The sample should be discarded when leakage where found in the container during transportation of the sample to the laboratory
  • The container must be free and sterile and the name of the patient must be fully written on it.
  • The temperature range should be maintain, the average temperature should be less that 20oC and it should not be more than 40oC for exposure
  • The examination of single specimen should not be encourage, at list two to three specimen should be collected a week or two week interval.
READ  SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

NORMAL SEMEN CHARACTERISTIC

Freshly ejaculated semen should have the following characteristic;

  • Highly viscid opaque and creamy
  • White in colour and have a distinct musky or sickly smell
  • The specimen should liquefy within 20 minute after collection
  • On liquefaction the specimen may change slightly viscous
  • The specimen may be turbid and alkaline with Ph 7.7
  • The total volume is measure, which after 2-5 days abstinence from sex, the volume should be from 2-3ml

PARAMETER PROCEDURE

1 TIME OF ARIVAL

2 APEARANCE

3 VISCOSITY/LIQUEFACTION

PROCEDURE

A sterile pipette should be used to suck up the fluid and then release it, if the liquid drop slowly one by one, it viscosity is normal. Then report normal viscosity.

But if the fluid fallout from the pipette without dropping, then report watery semen

NB: increase viscosity of the sperm can inhibit the sperm motility.

 

4 VOLUME

Liquefy semen can be measure with 10ml or 5ml pipette. For viscosity semen, wide mouth pipette should be used.

NB: Less volume of the spermatozoa may be due to lack of abstinence from sex, of which it can also interfere with the sperm count.

MICROSCOPY EXAMINATIION

MORTILITY

 Include Quantitative motility and Qualitative motility

Normal sperm Quantitative motility is from 60% upward

LABORATORY PROCEDURE

One drop of liquefied mixed semen should be place on a clean grease free slide, cover with cover slip and examine microscopically with x10 objective lens with iris diaphragm close, then focus properly with x40 objective.

WHO (world health organization) recommend for motility analysis.

QUANTITATIVE MOTILITY

This should be determined by counting both number of motile and non motile for at list 10 randomly selected fields, and at list 100 must be counted.

READ  ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

The percentage of motile sperm is calculated from the means percentage motility for the entire field counted. This is then adjusted to the nearest 5% (e.g 73% = 75%).

QUALITATIVE MOTILITY

This are determine by the percentage progress movement of the sperm under examination.

The result should be reported as follow

  • NON: when there are no progressive movement seen
  • POOR: when the number of the progressive movement is less than non motile
  • GOOD: when the number of the progressive movement is slightly higher than the number of non motile
  • EXCELLENT: when almost or all the number of sperm are motile

SPERM COUNT

Sperm count is carried out with the use of haemocytometer. Also electronic coulter counter can be used if it is available.

METHOD

The specimen should be diluted in 1:20 by using WBC (white blood cell) pipette.

Draw 0.5 mark of semen dilute it with diluting fluid of 11 mark.

Alternatively; micro pipette can be used, when using micro pipette,

Measure 10µl, 50µl, or 100µ volume can be used to make 1:20 dilution in a test tube.

NB: the diluting fluid should immobilize and preserve sperms.

COMMON DILUTING FLUID COMPOSITION

  1. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 5g
  2. Formalin (neutral) 1ml
  3. Distilled water      100ml

NB: this diluting is satisfactory for both bright and phase contrast microscopy.

But 0.5ml of saturated aqueous solution of gentian violet can be added for light microscopy.

 

Also tap water that is not acidic can be used for dilution.

 

It only area label 5 should be counted, which is 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, and 5e are the area that should counted.

READ  ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

CALCULATION

Sperm count = n

Multiplication factor = 50,000

Dilution factor = 20

 Total calculation will be : n x 50,000 x 20 = n x 106ml

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