Atom consist of varieties of structure, the varieties structure of atom determines it chemical and physical properties composition it is made up of. In the early discovery of atom, there structural varieties was not known until the discovery of Neutron in 1932. Discovery of atomic structure is one of the interesting history in the field of chemistry and science at large. By 1910 Rutherford was in the forefront to propose was is now accepted today as the atomic basic structure known as Rutherford model. ATOMIC BOHR’S MODEL But today Rutherford model is known as “Planetary models” of atom. The planetary model of atom is made up of the following, Nucleus found in the center of atom, the nucleus is made up of the following, of positively charge particles of proton, Neutron which is electrically neutral, and negatively charge particle of electron surrounding outer obit of the atom. The electron equalized the number of positively charge particle of Neutron.
The above picture, give and important prediction of the nucleus relative size to that of an atom. On the diagram nucleus shown to be 100,000 times smaller compare to the atom. But nucleus contain the importance mass of the atoms. This lead us to discussion of the mass of atom, but in other to have full understanding of atomic mass, we have to define new unit assign to atom called Atomic mass unit (amu). Atomic mass unit has conversion of
1amu = 1.67 x 10 -24g. Below is a table that give amu of the three atomic particles.
In turn, as it can be observed in the above picture, the mass of electron is 2000 times smaller than that of proton and neutron. Also as can be observed on the above picture, it show that mass of proton and neutron is close to 1 amu. This information is very vital so should be remember often. But a situation which where found that the number of electron is not proportional to the number of proton in the nucleus, then know that the atom is an ion i.e.
Cation: electrons number is less than protons number
Anion: electrons number is greater than protons number.
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