ELECTROLYTE

ELECTROLYTE

Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion also More »

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

ELECTROLYTE UREA AND CTREATININE TEST (E/U/CREATININE)

LIST OF TEST UNDER E/U/CREATININE Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Bicarbonate (HCO3) Urea (U) Creatinine (Cr) Glucose (Gluc)   ESTIMATION OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM There are three method used for the More »

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASSIUM ESTIMATION

SODIUM/POTASIUM ESTIMATION REAGENT   A STOCK SODIUM CHLORIDE STANDARD (1.0M) COMPOSITION Sodium chloride 45g Distilled water 1litre PREPARATION Dissolved 58.45g of sodium chloride in 20ml of distilled water, make up the solution to More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM CHLORIDE WITH COULOMETRY REAGENT DILUTING FLUID COMPOSITION Glacial acetic acid 100ml Concentrated nitric acid 6.4ml Deionized water 1litre PREPARATION Mixed 100ml of glacial acetic acid with 200ml of deionized More »

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

LABORATORY ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM BIOCARBONATE REAGENT NORMAL SALINE COMPOSITION Saline                                           1g Distilled water                            100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1g of Sodium chloride in 100ml of 100ml water 01N (HCL) HYDROCHLORIC ACID (NaOH) SODIUM HYDROXIDE 01N More »

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA

BLOOD ESTIMATION OF UREA Almost half of non proteinous nitrogen substance found in the blood is the constituent of urea. Urea is a product of amino acid that is produce when amino More »

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

container to be used collect dample for blood urea Nitrogen Test

SAPMLE USE TO CARRY OUT THE TEST SPECIMEN: whole blood can be used to perform blood urea nitrogen. Since whole blood can be used, then EDTA container can be use to collect More »

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD

ESTIMATION OF PLASMA/SERUM UREA USING BERTHELET METHOD REAGENT BUFFERED UREASE REAGENT COMPOSITION EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid)                     1.0g Urease                                                                           150mg Distilled water                                                              100ml PREPARATION Dissolved 1.0g of EDTA (Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid), and 150mg More »

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

Laboratory Examination Of Creatinine

ESTIMATION OF CREATININE Creatinine is a nitrogenous product that is produced when metabolism of creatine in the skeletal and muscle. They are filter by the kidney and excreted in the urine. REAGENT More »

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

GLOCOMETER AND IT USES

Glucometer can be define as instrument use for measuring the blood sugar level of a patient. The advent of glucometer come as result of scientist try to finding quick way to estimate More »

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

FUNCTION OF ELECTROLYTE IN THE BODY SYSTEM

ELECTROLYTE Electrolyte is a substance which when melted, will facilitate free flow of electricity. The substance form two charge ions, which are positively charge ions also called cations and negatively charge ion More »

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

cause of male infertility and laboratory investigation

seminal fluid analysis Seminal fluid analysis is one of the important investigation of male in fertility in medical laboratory. The often requested for men that have issue of getting a woman pregnant. More »

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system

Effect of alcohol on the body system Digestive and endocrine glands: Drinking too much alcohol can cause abnormal activation of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas. Buildup of these enzymes can lead More »

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

SEMINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

Practical step of seminal fluid analysis EXAMINATION PARAMETER MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Time of arrival Appearances of the specimen Viscosity/liquefaction Volume of the specimen MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION MOTILITY Quantitative motility Qualitative motility Sperm count HOW More »

 

COLITIS, ULCERATIVE (UC)

Infection of Colon

Idiopathic (a diseases that come from an unknown cause) and chronic intestinal inflammation. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a mucosal disease that usually involves rectum and may affect other organ proximally close to all or some part of the colon.

NB: There are many other common infective which may result to present of blood in the stools e.g. amoebiasis, schistosomiasis, and dysentery e.g. shigellosis, which should be excluded.

GENERAL EXAMINATION

Firstly Surveillance colonoscopy should be conducted for patient, the purpose of the test is to isolate abnormal development of organs or cells or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth (dysplasia). The colonoscopy surveillance is required every one to two years in chronic ulcerative colitis of above 10 years duration. But a patients which the disease is only limited to rectum, do not need the colonoscopy surveillance.

Colonoscopy.

THERAPEUTIC MEASURE

Electrolyte, haematinic and nutritional deficiencies of the patient should be corrected via enteral or parenteral route.

Loperamide should not be avoided during (acute flare) sudden recurrence or worsening of symptoms due to the risk of toxic megacolon.

PRISCRIPTION

Acute episode

Mild to moderate disease:

  • Sulfasalazine 1-2g should be ge given orally 6 hourly.

Make sure that FBC (full blood count) is monitor regularly.

If by taken sulfasalazine, there is no improvement, add 1.5mg/dl of Prednisone orally daily.

Once the symptoms have improved, reduce the dosage to 5 mg/week and should last for three months.

In case of severe disease admit patient, and Intravenous corticosteroids, e.g.:

  • Hydrocortisone, IV, 100 mg should be given 6 hourly.
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Failure to respond within 10 days of intravenous corticosteroids infusion, emergency colectomy (The surgical procedure that require total remove of all or some part of the large intestine or colon) should be carried out on the patient.

Also

2 mg/kg daily of Azathioprine should be given orally base on Specialist prescription.  The treatment should be Continue until usage corticosteroids can be reduced.

Proctosigmoiditis Disease

On the above case, a patients with limited disease that is not often require inpatient treatment. They usually appear well systemically.

Therapeutic measure

The patient should be given 1g/day of Mesalazine rectally base on Specialist prescription. Or 1.5 mg/kg daily of prednisone orally for 14 days.

Maintenance of remission

The patient should given 500 mg of sulfasalazine orally for 12 hourly. or May be titrated with 1 g  of sulfasalazine for 6 hourly. But Patients with recurrent severe attacks to maintain remission,

Should be given 2 mg/kg of Azathioprine, orally per day under Specialist prescription until there is an improvement of the condition.

REFERRAL CASE

Below are the case that require you to refer the patient an advanced medical care centre;

Confirmation of diagnosis.

Initiation of long-term therapy.

Refractory cases.

Fulminant colitis needs hospital admission and surgery may be required.

All patients with a severe worsening of symptoms should have abdominal X-rays. Markers

Symptom Worsening of case

Tachycardia; abnormally rapid heartbeat over 100 beats per minute.

Patient with temperature above 38ºC.

Patient with 6 bloody stools per day.

Patient dilated colon or small bowel on X-ray.

Patient with toxic megacolon (transverse colon diameter above 6 cm on X-ray examination), patient of these need hospital admission and the following medical emergency been given; parenteral fluids, corticosteroids, antibiotics and nasogastric suction, for colonic dilation. If it does not resolve the condition within 24 hours then emergency colectomy is should be carried on the patient.

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The risk of line of small holes for tearing at a particular place is high. And finally

Surgery is required.

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