Question 1. reactions which involve alcohol and acid is called? Carboxylation Esterification Neutralization Acylation Answer is B. Esterification Question 2. ____ restore the red colouration of Schiff? Option A. Ketone B. Aldehyde C. Carbohydrate D. Non of the above Answer


CHM311 TMA1 PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY Question 1. Below arecompund found in crude oils except_____? Option A. Suphur compound B. Oxygen compound C. Nitrogen compound D. Halogenated compund Answer is D. halogenate compound Question 2. The folowing are more important process used

Staphylococcus areaus on a blood agar after 48hours Incubation

HVS M/C/S Bellow is the picture of the growth of Staphylococcus areaus of High vaginal swab microscopic culture and sensitivity. After 48hours of incubation bellow is the growth of microorganism isolated, with sensitivity. How to read the result First thing


 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Before beginning with the topic of our discussion, the derivation of equilibrium expression, we have to re-examing the following thermodynamic convention. 1. Any system to which substance is added or substance are ken away from, the system, or

3D of methelenetriphenylphosphporane

The is the graphical view of methelenetriphenylphosphporane.

ionization energy of Noble

before discuss on the ionization of noble gas, we need to define and explain what ionization is all about. Ionization The ionization energy (Ei)  can defined primarily as the highest amount of energy needed to remove the most loosely bound electron in the valence

Composition of dry air

Dry air Composition On the post we going list the composition of dry air, will include volume % and B.P (boiling point). Gas % by volume B.P (boiling point)K N2 78.03 77.2 O2 20.99 90.1 Ar 0.93 87.2 CO2 0.033


Image of the AS genotype from different fields when viewed under the x40 objective lens of the Microscope.


DESCRIPTION  Characteristic chest pain due to myocardial ischaemia usually occurring on exercise and relieved by rest. GENERAL MEASURES »     Lifestyle modification. Ischaemic heart disease and atherosclerosis, prevention.   MEDICINE TREATMENT Long-term prophylaxis for thrombosis: Aspirin, oral, 75–150 mg daily


(NSTEMI) AND UNSTABLE ANGINA (UA) DESCRIPTION Non-ST elevation MI: Chest pain that is increasing in frequency and/or severity, or occurring at rest. The chest pain is associated with elevated cardiac enzymes and ST segment depression or T wave inversion on

Stereochemistry of Carbohydrate

Stereochemistry Saccharides with identical functional groups but with different spatial configurations have different chemical and biological properties. Stereochemisty is the study of the arrangement of atoms in three-dimensional space. Stereoisomers are compounds in which the atoms are linked in the

Chain and Ring Structure of glucose

Chain and Ring Structure Many simple sugars can exist in a chain form or a ring form, as illustrated by the hexoses. The ring form is favored in aqueous solutions, and the mechanism of ring formation is similar for most


Hexoses, such as the ones illustrated here, have the molecular formula C6H12O6. German chemist Emil Fischer (1852-1919) identified the stereoisomers for these aldohexoses in 1894. He received the 1902 Nobel Prize for chemistry for his work. that have opposite configurations

Oxytocin injection

Oxytocin injection as we can see today we are going to look at the oxytocin injection probably the use the indication and the dosage with administration. So let begin with presentation. Presentation Oxytocin is available in camplouse containing 3IU (5.00µg/ml

TMA1 CHM315 carbohydrate chemistry Question and Answer

TMA1 CHM315 carbohydrate chemistry Question 1. How many carbon atoms are present in pyranose? Option A. 5 B. 6 C. 7 D. 8 Answer to this question suppose to A. 5. But if you are a national open university of

TMA1 CHM307 atomic and molecular structure and symmetry question and answer

TMA1 CHM307 atomic and molecular structure and symmetry Question 1. When an atom gain enough energy to remove an election completely that atom is said to have observed_____? Option A. Maximum ionization energy B. Excitation energy C. Electron energy D.

TMA1 CHM309 Organic Spectroscopy Question and Answer

TMA1 CHM309 Organic Spectroscopy Question 1. The number of peak passing a given point per second is referred to as_____? Option A. Wavelength B. Frequency C. Wave speed D. Wave Distance The answer is B. Frequency Question 2. Spectroscopy is

TMA1 CHM301 Physical Chemistry III Question and Answers

Question 1. The change of matter from one phase into another is referred to as____? Option A. Phase expansion B. Phase transition C. Phase compression D. Phase transfer Answer is A. Phase expansion Question 2. The variation of ∆rH and

How to fix Accu-chek Glucometer error

On this post an going to show you simple step to fix your Accu-chek Glucometer error. Glucometer are prone to error and this error are caused by many problem by many fault some time when you have set your glucometer

Squadron leader Baba Ari Die in today aircraft crash at Abuja

We earlier report that Two Nigeria Air Force aircraft suffered a mishap in the Katampe area of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja , today Friday 28 September 2018. As the time of initial report we learn That the NAF Director

News Update; Two Nigerian Air Force jets crash in Abuja

Two Nigeria Air Force aircraft suffered a mishap in the Katampe area of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja , today Friday 28 September 2018. The news reaching us is that two aircraft belonging to Nigerian air force which were taking

Sad; Police ASP Inspector Maryam Abubakar is Dead

Wife of Niger State Governor Looses Orderly. The Wife of the Niger state Governor Dr. Amina Abubarkar Bello has lost her orderly Inspector Maryam Abubakar. The Wife of the Governor has described late Maryam’s death as very shocking and devastating

Sen Dino Melaye bags Nigeria Goodwill Ambassador Award

Sen Dino Melaye bags Nigeria Goodwill Ambassador Award By Gideon Ayodele Distinguished Senator Dino Melaye today at the 2018 Pan Africa Peace Conference held at The Shehu Musa Yar’Adua Centre, Abuja was again celebrated with an award of “Nigeria Goodwill


I itt’s no longer news that HND applicants will be writing the Paper Base screening Test (PBT) and Submitting their documents for the 2018/2019 Academic Session… The screening date has been fixed to take place HND SCREENING IS 16th -17th


The Ultraviolet (uv) region extends from about 10 to 380 nm, but the most analytical useful region is from 200 – 380nm, called the near ultraviolet region. Below 200 nm, the air absorbs appreciably and so the instruments are operated


DELTA STATE POLYTECHNIC OTEFE OGHARA RELEASE 2018/2019 SCHOOL FEES This is to inform all those who choose delta state polytechnic Otefe Oghara as their most preferred institutions and also for those who recently moved in to the next level, both

Gateway Polytechnic to inaugurate ICT APPs devt. Centre

Gateway Polytechnic to inaugurate ICT APPs devt. Centre Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade, has finalised plans to inaugurate its ICT Application Development Centre, the Rector of the Institution, Isaiah Oyeyinka, has disclosed. Oyeyinka disclosed this on Tuesday, during a press briefing as


Microscope can be defined as an instrument used to view microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organism that we cannot see with our naked eye except with the use of microscope.

Step by Step Procedure on How to Apply for Admission

Step by Step Procedure on How to Apply for Admission Visit the site On the Home Page, go to the Menu Bar, Click on Apply for Admission Select either Undergraduate Programme or Postgraduate Programme. Other programme is not available

Step by Step Procedure for Registration for Returning students

Step by Step Procedure for Registration for Returning students Visit the site On the Home Page, go to the Menu Bar, Click “Student Login” Click “Register” Input Details Click “Submit” After Submission Goto “Login” on the Menu and click


DESCRIPTION Ischaemic chest pain that is ongoing beyond 30 minutes and associated with persistent ST elevation or new left bundle branch block (LBBB). (Repeat ECG regularly as clinically indicated). MEDICINE TREATMENT If clinically hypoxic: Aspirin, oral, 300 mg immediately as

Federal Goverment Inogurate immigration patrol base in the border Katsina

immigration patrol base in the border The Interior Minister, retired Lt.-Gen. Abdulrahman Dambazau,  on Thursday inaugurate the first ever country immigration patrol base in the border  of Katsina inaugurated the country’s first operational border patrol base established by the Nigeria


Major risk factors for ischaemic cardio- and cerebrovascular disease: » Diabetes mellitus. » Hypertension. » Central obesity: waist circumference  102 cm (men) and  88 cm (women). » Smoking. » Dyslipidaemia: >     total cholesterol > 5.0 mmol/L, or >     


DESCRIPTION Venous thrombosis should be seen as a spectrum from calf deep venous thrombosis to pulmonary thrombo-embolism. All patients should be seen as high risk.   Differential diagnosis include: »      cellulitis, »     superficial thrombophlebitis, »     chronic venous

Alcohol and alcohol classification

Alcohol Alcohols can be define as a compounds in which a hydrogen of an alkane has been replaced by an -OH group. They have –OH group (a hydroxyl) bonded to a saturated alkane like carbon atom R- OH where R


MANAGEMENT Identify and treat the underlying cause. If the patient is bleeding, replace haemostatic factors with cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma. If the patient is not actively bleeding and platelet count > 20 000, then platelet transfusion is not necessary.


THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA-HAEMOLYTIC URAEMIC SYNDROME (TTP-HUS) DESCRIPTION Acute syndromes with abnormalities in multiple organ systems with evidence of micro-angiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. This condition presents with: »      anaemia, »     thrombocytopenia, often with purpura but not usually severe


DESCRIPTION IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA (ITP)  A common bleeding disorder due to immune destruction of platelets. To diagnose ITP, isolated thrombocytopenia is present (rest of the complete blood count, including an examination of the peripheral blood smear, is entirely normal). Clinically apparent

Conjoined Twins delivered in Benin city

The above picture is conjoin twins delivered in one of the maternity centre in Igo community ovia north East local government Benin city Edo state. According to the nurse who take the delivery, she said that the conjoined twin die

Noun Open portal for 2018 second semester registration

National open university of Nigeria has open a portal for 2018 2nd semester registration. The portal which was said to be opened on the 3rd of September 2018 as earlier schedule, but failed to meet up with time. The cause

Computers short code

Know more about your computer. Ctrl+A – Select All Ctrl+B – Bold Ctrl+C – Copy Ctrl+D – Fill Down Ctrl+F – Find Ctrl+G – Goto Ctrl+H – Replace Ctrl+I – Italic Ctrl+K – Insert Hyperlink Ctrl+N – New Workbook Ctrl+O


HAEMOPHILIA A AND B, VON WILLEBRAND’S DISEASE DESCRIPTION Haemophilia A, haemophilia B and von Willebrand’s disease are chronic bleeding disorders caused, respectively, by a lack of clotting factor VIII, clotting factor IX and von Willebrand factor (VWF, a carrier protein for


MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES DESCRIPTION A group of disorders characterised by refractory cytopenias due to bone marrow failure. Anaemia is very common and there is a risk of developing acute leukaemia. Investigations Evidence of cytopenia, with normal B12 and folate levels and

Carboxylic Acids

WHAT IS CARBOXILIC ACID ? Carboxylic acids refers to the class of organic compound with the carboxyl functional group. General Formula of Carboxylic Acids

Ogun Customs intensifies fight against smuggling, proliferation of arms

Igbagboyemi Oladele The Ogun Command of the Nigerian Custom Service said it has intensified its patrol to check smuggling, bunkering and proliferation of small arms and ammunitions in the state. The command’s Controller, Michael Agbara, while briefing journalists at the

Ogun customs intercept 6,194 bags of smuggled rice, 340 kegs of petrol, 33 vehicles

Ogun State Command of the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS) has intercepted 6,194 smuggled bags of rice, 33 vehicles and other contrabands worth over N382million. The seizures also include 395 kegs of vegetable oil (25 litres each), 340 kegs of petrol,

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar These media composed of; Agar Neutral red Meat extract Sodium deoxycholate Lactose Proteose peptone Ferric citrate Sodium citrate Sodium thiosulphate Preparation strictly on manufacturer instruction These media is used as a selective media for examination and identification

MacConky Agar

MacConky Agar  These media composed of; Sodium chloride Lactose Neutral red Agar Peptone Sodium taucholate The media should be prepared via manufacturer instruction. These media is used for differentiating intestinal organism into pathogen and non pathogenic fermenter micro organism, the


FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA DESCRIPTION Febrile neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count of < 0.5 x109/L with a temperature of greater than 38°C for > 1 hour. This is a medical emergency as these patients can rapidly develop features of


ANAEMIA, SICKLE CELL DESCRIPTION Homozygous sickle cell anaemia (HbSS: HbS > 50–100%). Individuals with sickle cell trait have < 50% HbS and are generally asymptomatic. The disease is characterised by various crises: vaso-occlusive, aplastic, megaloblastic and sequestration crises, and infection.


ANAEMIA, MEGALOBLASTIC DESCRIPTION Anaemia caused by a deficiency of folate and/or vitamin B12. Investigations Elevated MCV (mean corpuscular volume) and MCH (mean corpuscular haemoglobin). Macro-ovalocytes on blood smear; polysegmentation of neutrophils, thrombocytopenia with giant platelets. Decreased serum vitamin B12 or


DESCRIPTION Anaemia due to iron deficiency. Common causes of iron deficiency are chronic blood loss or poor nutritional intake.  Hypochromic microcytic anaemia Investigations Assess for a haematological response to iron therapy. GENERAL MEASURES Identify and treat the cause. Dietary adjustment.


DESCRIPTION Anaemia due to destruction of red blood cells. Destruction may be due to: » Extracellular factors such as auto-immunity or mechanical factors, e.g. disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hypersplenism, medications. » Abnormalities of the cell membrane, e.g. hereditary spherocytosis. »


DESCRIPTION Anaemia due to chronic inflammation. This is characteristically a normochromic normocytic anaemia. Common causes of anaemia of chronic disorder include: » malignancy, e.g. haematological or solid tumours, » autoimmune disorders, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, » acute or chronic infections, e.g.


DESCRIPTION Pancytopenia due to a hypoplastic bone marrow. Clinical features: » pallor, » petechiae, » purpura, and » bleeding with frequent or severe infections. MEDICINE TREATMENT If neutropenic and febrile, see section 2.7: Febrile Neutropenia. REFERRAL » Discuss all cases


DESCRIPTION Infection of the peritoneum, usually secondary to a surgical cause such as perforated bowel. In this setting polymicrobial infection with anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae are usually found. Primary or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is much less common and usually complicates ascites


DESCRIPTION Infection with the protozoan parasite, G. lamblia which colonises the proximal small intestine. GENERAL MEASURES Fluid and electrolyte replacement in severe diarrhoea. MEDICINE TREATMENT • Metronidazole, oral, 400 mg 8 hourly for 5 days. Reference and further reading Standard


DESCRIPTION Diarrhoea with blood and/or mucus due to E. histolytica. GENERAL MEASURES Rehydration may be necessary. This should be done with oral rehydration solution (ORS) unless the patient is vomiting or profoundly dehydrated. Surgery for bowel perforation. MEDICINE TREATMENT Loperamide


DESCRIPTION Diarrhoea caused by altered bowel flora due to antibiotic exposure. Severe cases present with pseudomembranous colitis. Toxins produced by Clostridium difficile can be demonstrated on stool samples. GENERAL MEASURES The most important aspect of management is discontinuing antibiotics. Rehydration

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