Bacteriophages Bacteriophages, or simply phages, are viruses that infect bacteria. They possess a protein shell surrounding the phage genome, which with few exceptions is composed of DNA. A bacteriophage attaches to specific receptors on its host bacteria and injects its


Microscope is made up off three basic component which include; Stand The stand is the frame of the microscope, stand is skeleton of the microscope of which other part of the microscope is attached to. Mechanical component The mechanical component

CHM302 Polymer Chemistry 1 PDF

CHM302 Polymer Chemistry 1

CHM102 Introduction to organic chemistry TMA 3 question and answer

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY TMA 3 Question 2: The double bond in alkene is converted into ____ by means of peracides A. Ethyne B. Epoxide C. Ethoxide D. Ether The answer is Question 3: Alkynes react with chlorine and bromine

Department of Medical Laboratory

Medical Lab The medical lab is divided into 4 sections which are as follows Clinical Chemistry Microbiology Histology Heamatology Clinical Chemistry This is a section of the medical laboratory which deals in analysing the chemical constituent of the blood or

CHM 102 Introductory Organic Chemistry TMA1 Questions and answer

Introductory Organic Chemistry TMA 2 Question 1: The decarboxylation of carboxylic acid yields which of the following compound A. Alkylhalides B. Alkanes C. Alkynes D. Alkenes The answer is B. Alkanes Question 2 : An alkyl group that has three

CHM102 introduction to Organic Chemistry TMA1

Introductory Organic Chemistry TMA1 Question 1: Reactions that lead to the attachment of an alkyl group to a molecular fragment are called A. estenfication B. Carbonization C. Alkylation D. Dealkylation The answer is C. Alkylation Question 2:______also known as acetylenes,

CHM201: physical chemistry II TMA1 Questions and answer

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Morphology of bacteria

Bacterial cells are between 0.3 and 5lm in size. They have three basic forms: cocci, straight rods, and curved or spiral rods. The nucleoid consists of a very thin, long, circular DNA molecular double strand that is not surrounded by


Epidemiological Terminologies Epidemiology investigates the distribution of diseases, their physiological variables and social consequences in human populations, and the factors that influence disease distribution (World Health Organization [WHO] definition). The field covered by this discipline can thus be defined as


 A natural loss of the products of pregnancy. Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently. Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks

Pathogen Terminologies

Infectiological Terminology I (Pathogen) Term and Explanation Saprophytes These microorganisms are nonpathogenic; their natural habitat is dead organic matter. Parasites Unicellular or metazoan organism living in or on an organism of another species (host) on the expense of the host

LASPOTECH 101.9 FM gets license to operate radio station

LASPOTECH 101.9 FM gets license to operate radio station Igbagboyemi Oladele The Lagos state polytechnic has acquired a license to operate a radio station. The institution rector, Mr. Samuel Sogunro stated this in his address at the 40th-anniversary press conference.


Counselling. Lifestyle modification, e.g. weight optimisation, smoking cessation and regular sexual intercourse. Investigation of semen analysis and prolactin level. Mid-luteal (day 21) progesterone assay. > 30 nmol/L suggests adequate ovulation. Laparoscopy and/or hysterosalpingography (Specialist supervision). MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat the underlying


Hirsutism refers to terminal hair growth in amounts that are socially undesirable, typically following a male pattern of distribution. Virilisation refers to the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a woman. This condition requires referral to a tertiary hospital


Primary amenorrhoea: no menstruation by 14 years of age in the absence of secondary sexual characteristics; or failure to menstruate by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea: amenorrhoea for at least 3 months in women with previous normal menses Investigations


The presence and proliferation of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, usually within the pelvis. It may manifest as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis is made by laparoscopy. GENERAL MEASURES For women who wish to conceive, referral for


DESCRIPTION PID includes salpingitis with or without oöphoritis and, as precise clinical localisation is often difficult, denotes the spectrum of conditions resulting from infection of the upper genital tract. Sequelae include: »     recurrent infections if inadequately treated, »     


INTRODUCTION Surgical procedures as dictated by the diagnosis. Perform a transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial sampling in all women over 45 years of age. Actively exclude organic causes, e.g. fibroids, for abnormal uterine bleeding. MEDICINE TREATMENT Dysfunctional uterine bleeding implies that


Lower abdominal pain that starts with the onset of menstruation, and subsides after menses have ended. It may be primary or secondary. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is associated with chronic pelvic infection, fibroids, endometriosis and adenomyosis. GENERAL MEASURES For secondary dysmenorrhoea, investigate


WARTS abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus Superficial muco-cutaneous infection caused by the human papilloma virus. GENERAL MEASURES Cryotherapy. Check patients with anogenital warts for the presence of other STIs. MEDICINE TREATMENT Cutaneous warts Treatment seldom


Clostridium difficile (PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS) Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. These conditions generally result from overgrowth of Clostridium difficile in the colon, usually after the normal intestinal


Clostridium botulinum (BOTULISM) It is a serious paralytic illness caused by Clostridium botulinum. The toxin (only types A, B, E and F cause illness in humans) binds to receptors on peripheral nerves, where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter and inhibits nerve


Clostridium perfringens (GAS GANGRENE) Clostridium perfringens, a gram positive rod, causes wound colonization (gas gangrene) after soil, and to a lesser extent intestinal tract, contamination. The organism produces several tissue degrading enzymes (including lecithinase [alpha toxin], proteolytic and saccharolytic enzymes).


Clostridum tetani (TETANUS) Clostridium tetani, a Gram-positive rod that forms a terminal spore, is commonly found in the soil, dust and animal feces. Contamination of wounds, which provide anaerobic conditions, can lead to spore germination and tetanus, a relatively rare,


The skin may be infected by yeasts or fungi and the clinical presentation varies with organism, body site infected and the body’s response to the infection. Most infections are due to anthropomorphic species that infect humans primarily. Yeasts such as


Lesions due to insect bite often grouped or in a linear arrangement, show a central bite mark and are on exposed areas of the body. Initial lesion is a red papule, which may blister, become excoriated, and then heal with


A transient itchy inflammatory skin and mucosal condition recognised by a wheal and flare reaction. There are many causes. In most chronic cases the precipitant for the urticaria is never found. Lesions due to insect bite are often grouped, show


This is an inflammatory condition of the skin and joints of unknown aetiology. Scaly red, itchy papules and plaques over extensor surfaces and in the scalp are common. The nails and skin folds are often involved. In exceptional cases, it


A chronic relapsing disorder of the lower limbs, which usually occurs in middle-aged women. It has many causes and is often associated with lipodermatosclerosis (bound-down, fibrosed skin) and eczema. It is mainly associated with vascular, predominantly venous insufficiency and immobility.

Bacteria Organisms

Types of bacteria and their economic importance Helicopter pylori which causes Ulcer. Vibro Cholerae which causes Cholera. Neisseria meningitidis which causes Meningitis. Treponema palladium which causes Syphilis. Bacillus anthracis which causes a common disease of livestock and human. Clostridum tetani


Erythema multiforme An acute, self-limiting and commonly recurrent inflammatory skin eruption with variable involvement of the mucous membranes and without systemic symptoms. Symmetrically distributed crops of target lesions (dark centre, an inner, pale ring surrounded by an outer red ring) often


Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition recognised by vesicles, weeping and crusting in the acute phase; and thickened, scaly skin with increased skin markings known as lichenification in the chronic phase. Eczema can be allergic or non-allergic. GENERAL MEASURES Avoid


Localised bacterial skin infection of hair follicles (furuncle/boil) or dermis (abscess), usually with S. aureus. The surrounding skin becomes: »       swollen,                                »      red, »       hot , and                               »     tender to touch. Note: Boils in


Superficial skin infection, starting as vesicles with an inflammatory halo. Later a characteristic honey-coloured crust on erythematous base develops which heals without scarring. Usually caused by group A streptococci or staphylococcal infection. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a potential complication. GENERAL MEASURES


Skin and subcutaneous infections with pain, swelling and erythema usually caused by streptococci, but also staphylococci and occasionally other organisms. Regional lymphadenitis may be present. Erysipelas has a raised demarcated border, whilst the border is indistinct in cellulitis. The presence


Extemporaneous compounding of some of the preparations listed should only take place at institutions where the competencies and equipment are available. ACNE Acne is an inflammatory condition of the pilosebaceous unit. Secondary changes can lead to scarring and inflammation GENERAL


These are chronic sequelae of rheumatic fever consisting of valvular damage, usually involving left heart valves, with progression and complications. GENERAL MEASURES  Acute stage: bed rest and supportive care. Patient education. Intensive health education for prevention of sore throats. MEDICINE


This is a life-threatening situation that requires immediate lowering of BP usually with parenteral therapy. Grade 3-4 hypertensive retinopathy is usually present with impaired renal function and proteinuria.The true emergency situation should preferably be treated by an appropriate specialist. Life-threatening

20 Types of Bacteria and Shape

COCCUS(spherical shaped bacteria) 1)Staphylococcus aureus 2)Staphylococcus epidermidis 3)Staphylococcus horminis 4)Staphylococcus pneumoniae 5)Staphylococcus haemolytical BACILLUS(rod shaped bacteria) 1)Lactobacillus specie 2)Listeria monocytogenes 3)Escherichia coli 4)Proteus specie 5)Enterobacter cloacae SPIRILLUM (spiral shaped bacteria) 1)Treponema pallidium 2)Treponema carateum 3)Treponema dentical 4)Spirillum minus 5)Fusobacterum necrophorum


HYPERTENSION, SEVERE These patients have severe hypertension, are asymptomatic and have no evidence of progressive target organ damage. Keep the patient in the care setting and repeat BP measurement after resting for 1 hour. If the second measurement is still


Hypertension control has significant benefit for patients. Detect and treat co-existent risk factors. Assess cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle modification and patient education is essential for all patients. Medicine treatment is needed for SBP >140 mmHg and DBP > 90 mmHg. See


GENERAL MEASURES Bed rest. Early surgical intervention in acute fulminant and prosthetic valve endocarditis is often indicated. MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat accompanying complications, e.g. cardiac failure. Antibiotic therapy It is essential to do at least three and no more than six


DESCRIPTION CCF is a clinical syndrome and has several causes.  The cause and immediate precipitating factor(s) of the CCF must be identified and treated to prevent further damage to the heart. Potentially reversible causes include:   »     anaemia,                                           


DESCRIPTION This rhythm does not require treatment, unless it is causing symptoms, i.e. syncope, dizziness, tiredness and poor effort tolerance. Sinus bradycardia <50 beats/minute or sinus arrest with slow escape rhythm, accompanied by hypotension, strongly suggest a treatable underlying cause


DESCRIPTION The majority of cases occur in patients over 60 years old and are idiopathic, with an excellent long-term prognosis, provided a permanent pacemaker is implanted. Acute, reversible AV block commonly complicates inferior myocardial infarction. The condition may also be