HYPERTENSION, SEVERE and HYPERTENSIVE URGENCY

HYPERTENSION, SEVERE These patients have severe hypertension, are asymptomatic and have no evidence of progressive target organ damage. Keep the patient in the care setting and repeat BP measurement after resting for 1 hour. If the second measurement is still

HYPERTENSION

Hypertension control has significant benefit for patients. Detect and treat co-existent risk factors. Assess cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle modification and patient education is essential for all patients. Medicine treatment is needed for SBP >140 mmHg and DBP > 90 mmHg. See

ENDOCARDITIS, INFECTIVE

GENERAL MEASURES Bed rest. Early surgical intervention in acute fulminant and prosthetic valve endocarditis is often indicated. MEDICINE TREATMENT Treat accompanying complications, e.g. cardiac failure. Antibiotic therapy It is essential to do at least three and no more than six

CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE (CCF)

DESCRIPTION CCF is a clinical syndrome and has several causes.  The cause and immediate precipitating factor(s) of the CCF must be identified and treated to prevent further damage to the heart. Potentially reversible causes include:   »     anaemia,                                           

SINUS BRADYCARDIA

DESCRIPTION This rhythm does not require treatment, unless it is causing symptoms, i.e. syncope, dizziness, tiredness and poor effort tolerance. Sinus bradycardia <50 beats/minute or sinus arrest with slow escape rhythm, accompanied by hypotension, strongly suggest a treatable underlying cause

HEART BLOCK (SECOND OR THIRD DEGREE)

DESCRIPTION The majority of cases occur in patients over 60 years old and are idiopathic, with an excellent long-term prognosis, provided a permanent pacemaker is implanted. Acute, reversible AV block commonly complicates inferior myocardial infarction. The condition may also be

NON-SUSTAINED (< 30 SECONDS) IRREGULAR WIDE QRS TACHYCARDIAS

These tachycardias are usually ventricular. They are common in acute myocardial infarction. In acute myocardial infarction, treat non-sustained ventricular tachycardia only if it causes significant haemodynamic compromise. Ensure the serum potassium level >4 mmol/L. MEDICINE TREATMENT Amiodarone, IV, 5 mg/kg

REGULAR WIDE QRS TACHYCARDIAS

Regular wide QRS tachycardias are ventricular until proved otherwise. Regular wide QRS supraventricular tachycardias are uncommon. Refer all cases after resuscitation and stabilisation. Emergency DC cardioversion is mandatory with a full protocol of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). GENERAL MEASURES CPR. If

AV JUNCTIONAL RE-ENTRY TACHYCARDIAS

Usually paroxysmal. Often young patients with normal hearts. AV nodal re-entry or WPW syndrome. P waves usually not visible (hidden by QRS complexes). GENERAL MEASURES Vagal manoeuvres: valsalva or carotid sinus massage. The patient should be supine and as relaxed

ATRIAL FLUTTER

Atrial rate >250 beats/minute with no flat baseline. Can be difficult to recognize if 2:1 atrioventricular (AV) block, as the first of the 2 p waves preceding each QRS complex might be confused with the twelve of the preceding beat.

ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

Acute onset (<48 hours) Assess clinically, e.g. heart failure, mitral stenosis, thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, age and other medical conditions. Consider anticoagulation with heparin or warfarin. Synchronized direct current (DC) cardioversion is occasionally necessary in emergency. Consider if first episode. Non-acute/chronic (>

NARROW QRS COMPLEX (SUPRAVENTRICULAR) TACHYDYSRHYTHMIAS

DESCRIPTION Sustained (> 30 seconds) or non-sustained narrow QRS (0.1 seconds) tachycardias.   REFERRAL Narrow QRS complex (supraventricular) tachydysrhythmias » Poor rate control. »     Severe symptoms.   Regular narrow QRS (supraventricular) tachycardias » Frequent or severe symptoms for curative radiofrequency

ATHEROSCLEROTIC PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE

  DESCRIPTION History and palpation of pulses confirms diagnosis. GENERAL MEASURES Smoking cessation is essential and is the single most important intervention to prevent progression. Exercise within exercise tolerance and other lifestyle modifications. See section 3.1: Ischaemic heart disease and

AMXICILIN

AMXICILIN Registered name: Amoxil, and clamoxyl Function: Antibacterial: any drugs or medicine use to treat bacterial infection   Usage The drugs is used to treat respiratory and ENT infection caused by bacteria such pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, streptococcus tonsillitis. Include

Cervical Incompetence & how is diagnose

This patient have a pregnancy complicated by cervical incompetence. Cervical incompetence is defined as the inability to support a pregnancy to term due to functional defect of the cervix 1 and 2. It imply an interesting abnormality of the service

5 Millions Test Tube Babies Born Worldwide

As the international committee for monitoring assisted reproductive technologies presented in latest data on children born to infertile parent at the European society of human reproduction and embryology conference of fertility expert has recently in talking has revealed that about

Regular sex boost mental health of a women

Regular sex boost woman mental health. The recent research conducted by a team of scientists reveal that sex is one of the major essential things that relieves pain from woman. On the research the scientists reveal that regulations sex boost

Electric charge source of Lightening

Some of the common major situations that happen in the hot atmospheric weather conditions of Nigeria is lightning and thunder. However, have you ever ask yourself question, what is responsible for thunder and lightening in our atmosphere? In other to

Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic radiation is radiation which have both magnetic and electric properties.  Electromagnetic radiation occupied wide area of radiation that can be explained or group by frequency or it wavelength. The distance between the two successive peaks is called

Spectroscopic analysis

Spectroscopic procedure of analysis is by estimating the intensity and wavelength of radiation that is transmitted or absorbed in the spectrophotometry. This step give foundation for sensitivity procedure for determination and quantization. On the basis of determination and quantization of

ANAEROBIC CABINET FOR CULTIVATION OF STRICT ANAEROBES

These are important anaerobic covering, and it is made up of a gas tight chamber with cemented covering portal and an inlet lock for moving substance in or out the chamber. The gas usually oxygen free is expelled via the

SEMI-SOLID INDICATOR

SEMI-SOLID INDICATOR Some anaerobic jar is made up of side arm; this side arm is a point at which indicator tube is attached to the jar via a short length of rubber tubing. This type of jar have their own

THESTING ANAEROBIC JAR

THESTING ANAEROBIC JAR There are two purposes which can cause anaerobic jar not to function properly, which are; Leakage jar: when there is leakage in the jar, there is possibility of the jar not to function normally. These conditions can

ANAEROBIC INCUBATION IN CANDLE JAR

ANAEROBIC INCUBATION IN CANDLE JAR When micro organism is important to grow in an atmosphere CO2, the easiest way is to place the plate culture together with a light candle and crew down the lid of the jar and incubate,

environment

enviroment mean different thing to different people, and in a different area of study, they also define the eneiroment base on there area of concentration. generaly enviroment can be define as anything that is arround us that we interact with

ANAEROBIC MICRO ORGANISM

HANDLING ANAEROBIC MICRO ORGANISM Since exposing many of these microorganism to free oxygen will kill them, a special precaution should be adhere to when handling the microorganism in other to prevent coursing dead to then, doe to exposure to the

ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTION

ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTION If some foreign substance is injected into the blood vessel of an animal, the injected substance stimulate a specific receptor by special cell in the body, the cell called lymphoid lead to the formation of protein in the

H AND O ANTIGEN

This antigen can be trace back to year 1903 a man called smith and his colleague found that motile hog cholera bacillus had a non motile change. As antiserum produce against the motile organism yield an unlike agglutination reaction to

Tube Agglutination

Tube Agglutination Material Pipettes Test tube Grease pencil Pack for tube Serum Agglutination tube Antigen 50% water bath Normal saline PROCEDURE Set ten test tube on a rack A volume of normal saline should be added to tube one and

LANCEFILED GROUPING

                LANCEFILED GROUPING This is method for demonstrating precipitation base on reaction of antigen and antibody within the bacteria involved. Glucose both culture overnight, centrifuge these culture at 3000rmp for 5-10 minute and discard the supernatant also growth culture from

LABELLED ANTIBODY TEST

LABELLED ANTIBODY TEST: it is important to stick to different type of label onto antibodies by not completing their potential to lay an ambush on the antigens. There are several numbers of label that are commonly used, Flourescent Dyes (fluorochromes):

COMPLEMENT FIXATION

COMPLEMENT FIXATION This is a set of protein thermolabile found in the serum that propose that material of binding antibody to antigen complex. These complement was known to be fixed for example Ag + Ab  →  Ag – Ab complex Now

Gel precipitation technique

Gel precipitation technique On this technique there is an interaction between two reagents and this interaction may result in a ring formation visible to the eye. Another reaction is between antigen and antibody combination on the technique the precipitation can

BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SPECIMEN

BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SPECIMEN Any sample sent for screening in the microbiology laboratory must be handle with extreme care because the sample may have biological pathogens that may cause disease to the lab personnel or may even spread to the

HOW TO HANDLE HIGH RISK SAMPLE

HOW TO HANDLE HIGH RISK SAMPLE High risk sample can be define as a sample that is suspected to carry the following high risk infections, such as HIV, HBsAg, Tuberclosis etc High risk sample like the one stated previously or

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

The following characteristic must be figure out when examine specimen microscopically; Colour Opacity Consistency Present of blood Pus or mucus Present of parasite, fungi, and bacteria Culture plate: type of colonies number seen either  1, 2, 3, or so on

Blood Culture

Blood culture: many thought must be put in mind when designing or adopting a reliable method, such thought are       The volume of the blood, it should be born in mind that high volume of blood faster high growth of

Automated blood culture

Automated blood culture  Automated blood culture: there are several methods developed for the automatic detection of bacteria growth in a medium. Most but all of this method depend on the obtaining of different source of metabolites, these takes place in

Cerehrospinal fluid

Cerehrospinal fluid examination  Cerehrospinal fluid: when the sampes is brought into the clinics it is necessary that the clinicians should be notified instantaneously for the organism that is suspected to be present in the sample. The sample is generally sent

Gram Negative Bacilli Method

Gram Negative Bacilli Method A loopful of stool should be inoculated into a plate of deoxycholate citrate agar and tube of selenite and incubate at 35ºC of temperature. Campylobacters palte should be also inoculated and incubate in 5%CO2 /N2  atmosphere

Fluid Examination in the Laboratory

Fluid Examination in the Laboratory Macroscopy, such as the appearance of the fluid should be noted. Transfer the fluid to clean sterile centrifuge container or tube, and centrifuge the fluid for 5 minute at 3000rpm. Discard the supernatant, then the

Pus(Abscesses) Examination

PUS(Abscesses) Pus: pattern of screening these specimen depend on the part of the body which the specimen where collected, either the specimen is from boil, ear, skin wound e.t.c. the specimen can be message on a sterile container or swab

Serology

Serology This is an examination of serum for a particular organism. for these examination, whole blood is sent to the laboratory in a sterile universal container. The sample should be allowed to clot. In other to faster the clothing of

sputum examination

Sputum: these examination may classified into two groups the one for examination of mycobacterium turberculosis and the sencon for examination of normal mouth flora such as; Neisseria Diptheroids Spirochates Fusiform bacilli Non haemolytic streptococcus Step for examination of Normal Flora

Genitourinary Swab Sample

Genitourinary Swab Sample These swabs are mostly collected from genital organ, the sample is specifically collected incase of suspicion of genital infection, the suspected microorganism that cause genital infection; Trichomoniasis Puerperal sepsis Gonorrhea Escherichia coli Staphylococcus  aureus e.t.c. These swabs

Examination of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Examination of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis The smear from the sputum can be make for demonstration of the present acid bacilli, but cannot be used for examination of turbercle bacilli. Petroff’s Method for Examination Of M.T mix the sputum with sodium hydroxide